Tajiks in Uzbekistan reach a new level
Posted 06 February 2010 - 04:31 PM
Tajiks in Uzbekistan: throw power
System of international relations in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan) are based not only on the Soviet and post-Soviet legal and administrative, trade, economic and political structures, but also older (base), cultural and civilizational and economic components .
In Central Asia, particularly the tensions differ Uzbek-Tajik relations. Contradictions between the Uzbeks and Tajiks are the most protracted in its development. The resettlement of ethnic Tajiks and Uzbeks, almost 50% does not match the boundaries and geography of nation-states - the Republic of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. It is, accordingly, creates fertile ground for the numerous contradictions, the most dangerous of whom are ethnic.
It is well known that the basis for statehood in Central Asia are millennia-old tradition of the Iranian state. Therefore, the Persians have long, if not dominant in the supreme power of the Central Asian states, then, at least, were a considerable number are in the power structures in general. For example, in the beginning of XX century Bukhara Tajiks formed a large and influential part of the bureaucratic apparatus of the Emir.
It is not surprising that in the modern period Tajiks constituted a significant part of the bureaucratic apparatus of Uzbekistan. To break the tradition could not even in Soviet times. In the Soviet and post-Soviet Uzbekistan, dominated and continue to dominate mainly Tajiks and local Iranians.
Despite the complex relationship between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, the Tajiks in Uzbekistan feel quite comfortable. Not the least role in this play and the origin of the head of state - Islam Karimov, whose Iranian-Tajik origin. Some of the statements that he Bukharan Jew by birth, not more than emotions. Although Islam Karimov and does not belong, as such, the Samarkand clan, this region has special significance for him. Samarkand generously funded by the state budget, and the Tajik population of Samarkand is one of the most prosperous in material terms.
Not being a titular nation, and being outside the tribal clan relationships, Tajiks, however, operate in the host country as a small country that can be identified as known in Tajikistan Public Institutions - Avlod. This proves that the Tajik community in Uzbekistan is inherent in the same as "Avlod signs - the possession of the whole complex of life-support systems, internal territorial, spiritual, cultural, ideological, legal and power mechanisms.
To date, the Tajiks, many of whom, by the way, on the passport of Uzbeks occupy key positions in the republic. It's interior minister Matlubov Bahadur, Foreign Minister and his deputies - Vladimir Norov, Salikhbaev Anwar and Karamatov Hamidullah, Secretary of the Security Council - Atayev Murad, State Adviser to the President - Khayriddin Sultanov and others. In addition to influential positions, and these people have significant financial resources. For example, Security Council Secretary Atayev M. controlled electric power, coal industry, has a chain of beer restaurants throughout the country, Deputy Foreign Minister Alexander Salibhaev virtually complete control over the pharmaceutical industry of Uzbekistan, Interior Minister Boris Matlubov controls Uzbek organized crime and through the iron and steel industry. In addition, Matlubov B., Foreign Minister Vladimir Norov and the above-mentioned Atayev AM have a share in the Tajik Aluminum Plant.
If this is far from complete list continue to line managers, we get an impressive Tajik community, which is closely connected with their historical motherland, can influence the policy of the state, which has considerable material resources.
Although built by Uzbek President Islam Karimov's regime is often called authoritarian or even despotic, it is not entirely untrue. In reality, the Uzbek president has to balance between several major clan factions and Tajik "Avlod. According to experts, the recent positions of the Tajik ethnic group in Uzbekistan reached a qualitatively new level. Positioning himself as the unofficial leader "Avlod Atayev MI, concentrated in the hands of the powerful levers of control. Its responsibility includes all issues of military-technical cooperation, procurement and arms sales, human resource issues in the power structures and the executive branch, the media. In the margins know that Atayev AM trying to become the head of the Uzbek security services (National Security Service) - a very influential structures of the state.
Clearly, this state of affairs can not remain without attention from Dushanbe. Son Ataeva M. recently invited to work in the representation of the Tajik aluminum plant in Moscow.
Recently, M. Atayev in a luxurious business center "Inconel" celebrated the wedding of his niece - Ataeva Sayer, who was married to a senior official of the Tajik airline "Tajik Air", one of the closest people Imomali Rakhmon. At the wedding, the guest of honor was the personal envoy heads of Tajikistan. It is characteristic that, according to witnesses at the ceremony have been repeated toasts in honor of the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara - "... the ancestral lands of the Tajik people." And the wedding itself was held solely on the Tajik traditions.
National unity - not the only one (albeit significant) factor influencing how the sum of Uzbek Tajik cooperation with other tribal clans. Much is determined by access to financial resources. In this case, "Avlod is more flexible than the strictly territorial Uzbek clan. Leading representatives of the Tajiks, with the support of his "Avlod, becoming the head of a branch of the economy, spreading the effects represent their community and strengthening its financial strength. Personnel policy in the country is entirely determined by the struggle between the clans and Avlod, during which Uzbek clans do not always come out victorious.
Distanced from the clan figures in the Uzbek government is small, but their role is insignificant. This, of course, does not apply to such vneklanovym figures as Gulnara and Lola Karimova - the president's daughter and their business is not included in the Uzbek clan system. More precisely, by virtue of their position, they are not integrated into it. However, there is no doubt that after the loss of state power in the face of his father - the current President of Uzbekistan, the country's largest business Gulnara and Lola Karimova will be absorbed by the strongest at that time the clan. It is possible that they will "Avlod, and its informal leader - M. Atayev to play a significant role in the history of relations between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
In the Middle Ages, when the Turkic tribes, enriched our state through raids on the territory of the northern (now Russia) and southern neighbors, the Tajiks assigned the role of ideologues and spiritual teachers of the people. Due to the fact that the Turks and the Mongols have the burden of military service, the Tajiks became possible cultural renaissance. It would not have resented modern Tajik historians, but it is under the Turkic rule, relative stability, the Tajik culture experienced its golden age. It was at this time was written Shahname "Firdawsl, wrote poems O. Khayyam and many others.
Before 1920 the territory of present Tajikistan was part of the Emirate. October 14, 1924 was established the autonomy of neighboring Uzbekistan. 5 December 1929 Tajikistan has received official status and became part of the USSR on the Rights of the republic. But the border was carried out in such a way that about one million Uzbeks were on Tajik territory, and nearly two million Tajiks in Uzbekistan. Until that time, except for Samanid state in the ninth and tenth centuries, when the process was completed addition of the core ethnic Tajiks, the Tajik people was not their nationhood.
The formation of the Tajik "Avlod in Uzbekistan, which we mentioned in the first part of the material, there is a logical continuation of the special situation of Tajiks in this country since ancient times. Inter-clan rivalries within the ruling elite began in the 20's and 30's. In 1925, the post of chairman of People's Commissars of Uzbekistan was appointed Tajik Fayzulla Hadzhaev. Although, in 1929 was appointed first secretary of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan Akmal Ikramov and secretary of the Central Usmon Yusupov, representing the Tashkent group, Fayzulla Hadzhaev until 1937 enjoyed the special confidence of Moscow.
In the Soviet period, the union leadership by the personnel policies established and maintained a careful balance of clan factions in the party-state apparatus of the Uzbek SSR. This change of party leadership of the country, as a rule, accompanied by staff movements in favor of certain clans. Since, the Tajiks were not the first persons of the republic, staff shake-up of basically not affected.
After the death in 1983, the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Ukraine, Sharaf Rashidov relied mainly on Jizzakh and Samarkand clans, leading positions in the republic became the representative of the Ferghana clan - Inamzhon Usmanhodzhaev and then Tajik Rafik Nishanov. Thus, they initiated in the wake of Moscow's campaign against the mafia and corruption in Uzbekistan, were subjected to all sorts of harassment appointees Rashidov. It is noteworthy that R. Nishanov from among the nominees Sh.Rashidova subjected to persecution not just one person - Ismail Dzhurabekova, "irony" (Persian) descent (in modern Tibetan language the word "Tajik" means simply "Persian". For the Tibetans so all Persian-speaking population of the region, including those who live in Iran - "Tajiks"). He was later to play a special role in strengthening the extraordinary influence "Avlod in socio-political and economic life of the republic.
We have already noted that the head of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov, Tajik has roots (his father - Abdugani Karimov, a native of the Tajik Kulyaba). Moreover, his wife Tatiana Karimova is half Tadzhik (father's side - Yuldasheva Akbar, a native of the Tajik Kulyaba). Although Islam Karimov is Samarkand by birth, his nomination to head the republic he had great support for this clan. Initially, he contributed to the promotion Rafik Nishanov. Then, after the appointment in 1989, chairman of the Council of Nationalities of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, with the filing of Ismail Dzhurabekova (at that time Minister of Water Resources UzSSR) R. Nishanov recommended Moscow Karimov. He was elected first secretary of the Central Committee of Communist Party of Ukraine, just as it almost all, a compromise figure, apparently not connected with those or other groups in partgosapparate.
During this period, "Samarkand" the clan was divided into two main ethnic groups: Tajiks, "dzhurabekovtsy and Uzbeks, many of which consisted of representatives of the clan of the former leader of the Uzbek SSR Sharaf Rashidov. Since 1989 the government of Uzbekistan is dominated Samarkand-Bukhara clan. The leader of the Samarkand faction has long been Ismail Jurabekov. At the present time, "Samarkand" represent the most "neuzbekskoe" on the basis of ethnic education (descendants of the Arabs, Tajiks and even the Persians, "Irony"). This eclectic from a national point of view of education by the end of the first decade of the 21 st century, thanks to the nomination of the leading positions in the Uzbek-Tajik society, was formed as a "Avlod, whose definition was given in the previous submission.
After Uzbekistan gained independence, Karimov became president, Dzhurabekova appointed first deputy prime minister, head of the agro-industrial complex, actually making it into the second person in the country. Jurabekov resulted in the highest echelons of power Buritosh Mustafayev (as a prosecutor), Faizullo Mullajanov (as chairman of the Central Bank of Uzbekistan), Shaukat Hamrakulova (former Deputy Foreign Minister and former ambassador of Uzbekistan to the United States) Abdusamatov Polvonzoda (until recently - the head of the Ministry of Justice of Uzbekistan ) Khayriddin Sultanov (State Advisor) and other representatives of ethnic Tajiks - natives of Samarkand, Bukhara and other regions. During this period influential positions in the structures of the National Security Service took Anwar Salikhbaev (now Deputy Foreign Minister), Murad Atayev (now Secretary of the Security Council). To head the Interior Ministry I. Djurabekov advanced Uzbek, a native of Kazakhstan Zokirjon Almatov (his wife was Tadzhik, odnoselchankoy above F. Mullazhonova, and the Almaty did not represent any clan). Following the resignation of Almatov, interior minister was appointed Bahadur Matlubov (Tajik Samarkand).
Thus, supported by the fact that "Avlod is a more flexible education than the Uzbek tribal clans, based on territorial affiliation.
In 1998, Ismail Jurabekov dismissed Deputy Prime Minister, and then after a while returned to Olympus as a state adviser to the President. In 2004, against I. Dzhurabekova opened a criminal case, and he was sentenced to 20 years imprisonment. It was officially announced that the cause of condemnation Dzhurabekova are crimes in the area of agribusiness. However, experts know that Djurabekov convicted of that under the pretext of melting, Russia sold a 5000 (five thousand!) T-62 tanks. Karimov learned about that, and he had to respond. Verdict fully reflects the status quo in the power hierarchy in Uzbekistan. More than a year Djurabekov hiding from the investigation in Moscow, under the patronage of Rafik Nishanov.
The significance of the figures Dzhurabekova not limited to its role in strengthening the "Avlod in Uzbekistan. Its capabilities and influence in the 90 years have moved beyond the republic. Jurabekov played a huge role in the civil war in Tajikistan. It was he who suggested Karimov (including Kulyab origin of his family) to support Kulyabis I. Rakhmonov when he led the Popular Front in its struggle against the IRP (Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan). On the side of the Popular Front, headed by I. Rakhmonov in the fighting involved and forming part of the armed forces of Uzbekistan.
Now, retired Jurabekov, nor peace of mind, not living out his worst Century, surrounded by his sons, who have large business projects in Russia and Tajikistan. Moreover, fostered them have become the iconic figures in the Uzbek establishment. The most promising are two - Murad Atayev and Anwar Salikhbaev.
Leader Avlod Murad Atayev, as a native Tajik Leninabad has the support of the Tajik business and political circles. As a clarification to add that his son in Moscow (of the Tajik Aluminum Plant) protects Russia Steel tycoon Iskander Makhmudov, which Bukhara Tajik, is closely associated with Izmaylovo OPG. In this regard, M. Ataev interacts with the interior minister Boris Matlubov
Anwar Salikhbaev, as we have already noted, full control of the pharmaceutical market, supports her daughter head of state - Gulnara Karimova, she patronized generously financing funds. In the case of coming to power this person, Salikhbaev, at least, can count on a ministerial portfolio in one of the security forces in Uzbekistan and, of course, maintaining control over a very capacious market of medicines and medical products.
In conclusion, the study should be noted that the introduction of "Avlod all influential structures of Uzbekistan, has not yet been completed. Outside the study left a lot of representatives "Avlod, who at one time played not the least role in the socio-political and economic spheres of the republic. And although the philistine used the addition of "ex", they themselves have a different opinion. With this in mind, the subject under consideration by the author will continue.
Posted 07 December 2010 - 07:14 PM
man Samarqandi tojik. Karimovham Samarqandi! prezidenti Uzbekiston az shahri mon!
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احساسِ سوختن، به تماشا نميشود
Posted 08 December 2010 - 09:15 PM
man Samarqandi tojik. Karimovham Samarqandi! prezidenti Uzbekiston az shahri mon!
Khosh Amadi braadar e Dost. Zaban e Russ ra yaad dare? Jaan, Islam Karimov Tajik e asli nist. Un Doshmaan e mardom e Tajikaan wa ham as mardom e Jahooda e Samarqandi ast.
Posted 09 December 2010 - 01:15 PM