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Racism in Russia toward Caucasian-looking people, Muslims and ethnical non-Russians

#1 User is offline   Parsistani Icon

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Posted 23 February 2011 - 06:37 PM

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Source: Wikipedia


Racism in post-Soviet Russia appears mainly in the form of negative attitudes and actions by some minorities towards people who are not considered ethnically Russian. Traditionally, this included antisemitism, as well as hostility towards various South Caucasian, North Caucasian and Central Asian ethnicities.

In May 2006, Amnesty International reported that racially motivated killings in Russia were "out of control" and that at least 28 people were killed in 2005 on racial motives.[1] In 2006, Amnesty International registered 252 victims of racist crimes, of which 21 died. In February 2007, President Vladimir Putin asked the Federal Security Service to combat racism,[2] but hate crimes still increased. From January 1 to July 31, 2007, Amnesty International registered 310 victims of neo-Nazi and racist crimes in Russia; 37 of those victims died as a result of attacks. Amnesty International criticize Russian police for not doing enough to combat racist crimes, and for often ignoring reports from civilians about threats and crimes.[3] According to the Moscow Human Rights Bureau, from January to March, 2008, 49 people were killed in assaults by radical nationalists, 28 of them in the greater Moscow area, and an estimated 118 people in total were killed in the whole of 2008.

The number of Russian neo-Nazis is estimated at around 85,000, "half of the world's total", according to western news agencies.[4][5] The director of the Human Rights Bureau, Alexander Brod, stated that surveys show xenophobia and other racist exp​ressions are prevalent in 50 percent of Russians.[6]

Racist violence in Russia resulted in 85 deaths in year 2007 and 97 deaths in year 2008.[7] 52 people died among 242 injured in the first half of 2009.[8]

In May 2006, Amnesty International reported that racist killings in Russia were "out of control" and that at least 28 people were killed in 2005.[1] In 2006 Amnesty International registered 252 victims of racist crimes, of which 21 died. In February 2007, President Vladimir Putin asked the Federal Security Service to combat racism,[2] but the number of reported hate crimes still increased. From January 1 to July 31, 2007, Amnesty International registered 310 victims of neo-Nazi and racist crimes in Russia; 37 of those victims died as a result of attacks. Amnesty International criticized Russian police for not doing enough to combat racist crimes, and for often ignoring reports from civilians about threats and crimes.[3]

According to the Moscow Human Rights Bureau, from January to March, 2008, 49 people were killed in assaults by radical nationalists, 28 of them in the greater Moscow area.[4] The alarming figures have motivated authorities to take a tougher stance. More crimes are being investigated as racial attacks, and more are going to court. In May, 2008, eight skinhead extremists were found guilty of a 2006 explosion in the Cherkizovo market that left 14 dead and 47 injured, most of whom were immigrants from the North Caucasus and East Asia.[10] Semyon Charny from the Moscow Human Rights Bureau says: ”The fact that this case found its way to court, and the example of people sentenced to life for the Cherkizovo market blast shows that we are moving in the right direction - but there's still a lot to do.” Recently, many videos have sprung up on the internet depicting skinheads attacking immigrants and non-whites. This is reportedly becoming a new trend among neo-nazis, contributing to an increase in hate-crimes.

In the beginning of 2000s extreme nationalists committed at least 26 hate murders in Russia, according to Moscow Bureau for Human Rights.[11] Since year 2003, St. Petersburg's militia investigated ethnic hate murders of the following individuals.

* 5-year-old girl Nilufar Sangboeva of Gypsy ethnicity. Skinheads beat her and another 7-year-old girl near the Dachnaya station in the suburbs of St. Petersburg on 21 September 2003. She died the next day in the hospital.
* Kim Hen Ik, a citizen of DPRK. Criminals killed him in St.Petersburg on 14 December 2003.
* Sergei Beldy, student of the Institute of People of North, of Nenets ethnicity. Skinheads killed him in St. Petersburg on 26 December 2003.
* 9-year-old girl Khursheda Sultonova of Tajik ethnicity. A group of skinheads attacked her along with her father and her cousin when they approached their St. Petersburg apartment building after skating on 9 February 2004.
* Abdul Kadyr Boddavi, student from Syria. Criminals pushed him onto the subway tracks on 13 March 2004.
* Two Mad Crowd's own members, Rostislav Gofman and Alexei Golovchenko. They disappeared in June 2004. Investigators found their bodies in 2006 close to the village of Zahodskoye near St. Petersburg. Gofman left a list of Mad Crowd members shortly before his death.
* Nikolai Girenko, candidate of historic sciences. Anonymous criminals shot him on 19 June 2004.
* Wu An Tuan, a student of St. Petersburg's Polytech University of Vietnamese ethnicity. A group of skinheads attacked him on 13 October 2004.
* Lampsar Samba, a student from Senegal, an activist of a human rights movement African Unity. An unknown shot him on 7 April 2006. Investigators found a pump-action shotgun decorated with swastika nearby.

A court reporter Leonid Nikitinsky wrote that militia pressured and tortured teenage petty criminals from poor families, forcing them to confess in the hate murders. According to Nikitinsky, it was vice-president of the Agency of Journalistic Investigations Yevgheny Vyshenkov who revealed suspected perpetrators among the Mad Crowd members in January–February 2006 and published his findings in Tainy Sovetnik in May 2006.[12][13] Nikitinsky wrote that by the time Vyshenkov discovered Mad Crowd suspects, jury trials found a group of 7 youth guilty of murdering Sangboeva, despite the evidence that militia had tortured them. Two other jury trials acquitted groups of 8 and 14 youth of charges with the murders of Sultonova and Tuan, respectively. Nikitinsky wrote that the Mad Crowd members found by Vyshenkov had confessed in ethnic hate murders, including the killing of Sangboeva, but the prosecution downplayed the role of the gang.[14]

The investigation of the role of Mad Crowd in the hate murders continued as of December 2006. Prosecution intended to keep the earlier conviction of the 7 youth and to appeal the acquittals of the other two groups.[15]

In Russia, the term Caucasian is a collective term referring to anyone descended from the native ethnicities of the South Caucasus and North Caucasus. In Russian slang, South Caucasian and North Caucasian people fall into the category of black. This is not associated with skin colour but with hair colour and non-Slavic facial appearance.[16]

Several pogroms, directed particularly against Caucasian people merchants and migrants have been reported in the Russian capital, Moscow, and in other Russian cities.[17] There was a pogrom on April 21, 2001 in Yasenevo Market in Moscow against merchants from the Caucasus, and well-organised attacks on Caucasian businesses and migrants in the eastern Russian town Ekaterinburg.[17] Racially motivated attacks against Armenians have grown so common that the president of Armenia, Robert Kocharyan, raised the issue with high-ranking Russian officials.[18]

In December 2010, there was a massive outbreak of hostility to Caucasians, culminating in nationalist protests in Moscow and other cities on the 11th and 12th. [19][20][21] The trigger was the killing of a Russian soccer fan in a street fight on December 6th. Nationalist rioters in Moscow, outside the Kremlin building, screamed racist slogans[21][20][19], cried for a "Russia for Russians" and a "Moscow for Muscovites"[21][20], attacked Caucasians and other minority groups who passed by[19][20], and some (including children as young as fourteen [21]) even making the Nazi salute[21][19]. The next day, a similar riot was held in Rostov-on-Don, and afterwards, the city's government banned Caucasians from performing their traditional dances in the city.[20] Afterward, the police chief in Moscow said that civil liberties were a hindrance in security and that migration should be restricted.[19]

Vladimir Kvachkov, a major nationalist leader of the organization People's Liberation Front of Russia (which says its major goal is to "free" Russia from Caucasian and Jewish "occupiers"[21]) stated that "We Russian nationalists, the initiators of the people's front, we are telling you that the events of Dec. 11 are the beginning of the revolutionary changes in Russia, the first outbursts of the approaching Russian revolution... You are the ones who can participate in it."[21]

In 2004, a nine-year old Tajik girl was stabbed to death in Saint Petersburg by suspected far-right skinheads.[22][23]

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the rise of the Muslim population in Russia and the Second Chechen War, many Russian extremist-groups have associated Islam and Muslims with terrorism and domestic crimes.[24] In August 2007, a video of 2 ethnic Russian neo-Nazis beheading two Muslim men, one from Dagestan in the Caucasus and one from Tajikistan appeared on the internet.[25] It is later identified that the victims were 24 year old Shamil Odamanov from Russia's mainly Muslim Dagestan region, and 20 year old Salakhetdin Azizovand from Tajikistan.[26][27] In December 2008 an email, containing a picture of the severed head of Azizovand was sent to the Moscow Human Rights Bureau . It was sent by a group called Russian Nationalists' Combat Group and has led to protests from the Tajik Government.[28]

In March 2008, allegations of blood libel appeared in posters in Novosibirsk.[29] The Federation of Jewish Communities of Russia expressed their concern about a rising number of attacks targeting Jews, calling it part of "a recent surge in anti-Semitic manifestations" in Russia.[30]

Russian attitudes towards the People's Republic of China have focused on the fear of Russia (especially the Russian Far East and Siberia) being overwhelmed by Chinese migrants, because of China's much larger population.[31] It is also noted that there may be illegal immigration coming from China into Far Eastern Russia, especially after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991.[32]

In Saint Petersburg, three Africans have been killed in hate-crime attacks since the mid 2000's. "Monkey" insults and non-lethal assaults are so frequent that students have ceased reporting them.[33][34]

Attitude towards Africans were generally neutral during the Soviet Union, because of its internationalist agenda. As a part of its support of decolonisation in Africa, the Soviet Union offered free education for citizens of African states. African students (as well as other foreign students) were placed in many higher education institutions throughout the country, most famously at Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, then known as the Patrice Lumumba Peoples' Friendship University, after the Congolese revolutionary and prime minister Patrice Lumumba.

An outreach group in Moscow found in a survey that over half of Africans who took Moscow's subways had been physically attacked in the past.[35]

Nikolai Girenko, a prominent ethnographer and anthropologist, was shot to death in his St. Petersburg apartment. Girenko was a key adviser in 15 ethnic hate crime trials.[36] Timur Kacharava, a Russian antifascist of Georgian descent and a fourth year philosophy student at St. Petersburg State University, was stabbed to death by a group of young skinheads. Kacharava had been known for antagonizing neo-Nazis in the streets.[37] The main defendant in the trial that followed almost two years later was 14 years old.[38]

On 19 January 2009, while leaving a news conference in Moscow less than half a mile from the Kremlin, Stanislav Markelov, a human rights lawyer and journalist was gunned down. Anastasia Baburova, a journalist for Novaya Gazeta who tried to come to Markelov's assistance, was also shot and killed in the attack.[39][40][41]

On 16 November 2009, Ivan Khutorskoy, former punk singer and head of the security during concerts of antifascist was killed in a suburb of Moscow, two bullets in the head. He also was known for organizing self-defense classes for antifascists individuals, who are prone to attack for distributing anti-racist leaflets. Khutorskoi sometimes provided security at press conferences of Stanislav Markelov.

Since 2008 racism violence in Russia experienced a steady decline. According to the independent organization SOVA Center: "The main outcome of 2009 was a clear reduction in the number of victims of racist and neo-Nazi motivated violence for the first time in six years of observation conducted by SOVA Center. To some extent, credit should go to the law enforcement agencies who suppressed the largest and most aggressive ultra-right groups in the Moscow region in the second half of 2008 and in 2009. However, despite all efforts, xenophobic violence remains alarming in its scope and extends over most of the Russian regions, affecting hundreds of people." [42]

According to SOVA center 2009 was the first year of decline in racist violence, however their annual reports show a decrease in racist violence already in 2008.

However, it was after 2008, in 2010, that the mass rioting against Caucasians (see respective section) in Moscow and Rostov took place, making this prediction seem to be premature.

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Posted 24 February 2011 - 01:44 AM

The Russians have been long known for this sort of savage behavior.
I had heard about their poor treatment of Dagestanis and Tajiks.
I hope that the Dagestani insurgency will continue to expand and I hope they will begin to reap the fruits of their annexation of Dagestan.
Despite their attempts, Southern Dagestan maintains a strong Azeri identity.
i am sure that we will one day go back to the borders of 1801, it may take time but it is inevitable. There are many muhajir families that left that region and moved to current-day Iran (mainly Tabriz) but none will forget the homeland.

We need to take our revenge from the Russians
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They have seperated familys and nations.
هیچ وقت به خدا نگو یه مشکل بزرگ دارم
به مشکل بگو من یه خدای بزرگ دارم


Go tell the wolves that although the father has been killed,
The father's gun is with us still
Tell them that although all the men of the tribe have been killed,
There is a young boy in the cradle still

Bakhtiari Proverb
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