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Imam Al-Ghazali- the proud of Tajiks Rate Topic: -----

#1 User is offline   Faridun Icon

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Posted 20 April 2008 - 11:44 AM

There exist a lot of philosofical systems in the world, but the system which was created by tajik mystic Abu Homid Al-Ghazolli aim only at giving a spiritual perfection to human beings and not allowing them stray in this damned world. Only in His teching a human can achieve his true destiny and dignity.

Only tajik son of Khorasanzamin - Abu Hamid Muhammad Al-Ghazali
could offer humanity the alchemist of Happiness.


Al-Ghazali: The Alchemist of Happiness (Part 1 of 8)

http://www.youtube.c...h?v=zu3FvLL--2A
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#2 User is offline   Faridun Icon

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Posted 21 April 2008 - 06:28 AM

Imam Ghazali`s last words (amazing!):



http://www.youtube.c.../site/media.htm
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Posted 21 April 2008 - 06:44 AM

Question: Mohamed Islam: One of the leading Islamic Philosophers was Al-Ghazali. Who was he? Can you tell us about him?

Answer: Abdel Wahab El Messeri: He was, like most Islamic thinkers or philosophers of the time, quite versatile, well rounded: He was a lawyer, a scientist, a jurist, a judge. Non of the Islamic thinkers were confined to the discipline of philosophy. They had comprehensive knowledge (alchemists. Scientists, literary critics, mystics, etc.). This well-roundedness and comprehensiveness occurred in the west only during the renaissance.

He was born in Tus, near the Iranian border in 1058, during the time of the last florescence in Islamic Philosophy. He went to the Nazamia School in Baghdad, where he made quite an impression. He was preceded by Al-Farabi and Ibn Sina. The philosophical outlook before him was quite impressive.

Later in Baghdad he underwent a change, he started suspecting every thing he had learned. The radical skepticism of Descartes. He is always compared to Descartes. But differences between them are much more than resemblances. Descartes fell back on the Ego to resolve the crises of meaning. ?I think therefore I am? This was the beginning of modern rationalism which resulted in the absolute polarity of man versus nature. Now we know that nature conquered man.

Al-Ghazali left school and went on a quest. When he returned, he came with a world outlook which represented a synthesis of the best in Islam. It was based on a critique of all the trends in Islamic thought during his time. He pointed out

The limitations of the mystics ( Sufis ) The tendency to contemplation and esoteric knowledge. Religion has to express itself in exoteric learning. This was quite a shift in mysticism. He pointed out that action is part of mysticism. You know then you act. Just to know is not enough. He said mystics try to get some kind of union with God, but there has to be a gap between man and God. This sets him apart from those who tended toward heresy. They wanted to bridge that gap between the created and the Creator, but the Islamic World Outlook depends on that gap. Man should not try to bridge that gap, to have union with God, but he must strive to get closer to God. The Muslim learns to recognize the gap. This is of the essence in Islam. Those who want to bridge the gap, and reach God, and have union with Him, are Pantheists. Islam is very much opposed to Pantheism.
He addressed himself to the Mukalimun (Theologians) They served Islam by solving some problems, but really did not solve most problems.
As for the Philosophers, he criticized them most severely. Firstly, they believed in eternity of the world, co-eternal with God ( They were believers but erred on certain points). Secondly they made God very distant from man. Thirdly they believed in a world controlled by cause and effect. He refuted these and other points in a book: Incoherence of the Philosophers.
The Cosmology of Al-Ghazali: man is here, God is there. In between is the world of norms, both ontological and psychological, Moral and axiological. In other words, it is not a an arid world, or abyss. It is a field. One can interact with god in that field. If man fulfills some of these norms, and man recognizes his separateness, he can get closer to God. There is a great role for mysticism. Not leading to unity with God, but simply spiritual exercises. The mind for Al-Ghazali is not , like for other philosophers, absolute. It can not be. Otherwise, whence would it derive its norms.

Causality: This is his real contribution to philosophy. Philosophers say: cause lead to effect. Al-Ghazali says : to follow after does not mean to follow from. He says : the power is not the cause. The power is God. God has imposed the pattern. The cause is God. Not like ?atura naturans?of Spinoza/ Descartes, they make this latent in nature. This is Pantheism. The patterning force in nature is eminent in it, but transcendental at the same time. This is the essence of Islamic Epistemology, which means: we can know nature but not completely because of the power that is there, both latent and transcendental. Unlike the modern Secular Concept, where you have to know nature completely, and you control it, and harness it to your service. Of course, since modern western man has failed, now you have Materialist Irrationalism, where they claim there is no causality at all. We go from absolute causality of the Cartesian or Hegelian variety, to the Post-modern denial of causality completely.

The Ghazali Islam assures us a level of certainty, enough to go along, but it does not promise us absolute certainty and absolute control of the universe.

MI: The other contribution of Al-Ghazali was the revival of the science of religion?

AWM: He wanted to defy the sciences of religion and at the same time infuse spirit into them. The essence of Al-Ghazali? Epistemology was this attempt to bring in the full complexity of man. With science there had to be emotion. The heart had to be operative, not just the mind. He then moved on to Miskat un Anwar (the mystical: the Niche of Light) where he talks about certain mystical exercises .

He also had educational books to fulfill the function of a well rounded, versatile philosopher: Educator, thinker, psychologist, mystic.

MI: What kind of following did he have?

AWM: I understand that Al-Ghazali dominated the Islamic world from that time on. There was opposition who rejected his view. Saying that it would subvert the mind completely. The Philosophers saw man in the form of polarity: it is either the heart or the mind. Whereas Al-Ghazali says man operated in a complex integrated duality. That is why he said there was a field and not a gap between man and God.

MI: How were the philosophers viewed or received by the ruling elite of the time.

AWM: There were ups and downs. For example : the Mu?azilites or pure rationalist : if the ruler was of the same persuasion, they would be supported, if not they were persecuted.

Al-Ghazali: he had no problem, because he had ideas of order. He tried to harness the mystical impulse, which sometimes ran amok.

MI: Al-Ghazali as a jurist, what role did he play?

AWM: The same interplay of mind and heart. Between the attempt to apply the idea of law inspired by Divine Revelation. He did not believe in empirical law, but did not reject it. It is all encapsulated in Divine dictates.

MI: How was the world after Al-Ghazali?

AWM: The Mongol invasion of the Islamic world occurred, and then the Crusades. The Islamic World withdrew inwards. Al-Ghazali is sometimes blamed for this withdrawal. But it was a result of these historical forces which were much more powerful in determining the future developments.
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Posted 21 April 2008 - 06:55 AM

May God bless You, O Imam!

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Posted 21 April 2008 - 07:01 AM

Imam Al-Ghazali:

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Posted 21 April 2008 - 07:02 AM

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Posted 21 April 2008 - 07:09 AM

The face of Al-Ghazali is shining with the divine light:



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Posted 21 April 2008 - 07:18 AM

The Mausoleum of Imam al-Ghazali in Tus, Khurasan

square shaped historical monument made out of bricks. Its height is 25 meters and covers an area of 144 square meters and consists of three chambers. The middle chamber consists of mihrab which is decorated with intricate stucco work.

Posted Image


This building according to the popular belief is called as Haruniyah, the jail built by the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (rule 170-193 A.H/ 786-809 A.D.) but it in the ancient travelogues it is named as Masjid-i Tus.

The author of Mihman Namah-i Bukhara compiled in 915 A.H., have described the grave of Imam al-Ghazali in detail. He have mentioned that the grave of Imam al-Ghazali was very small and was located near the western rampart of Tus city.


Posted Image


In the year 1995 the Archaeological Survey of Khorasan province carried out excavations in this area and discovered the remains of the grave of Imam al-Ghazali which corresponds exactly with the description as mentioned in Mihman Namah-i Bukhara in the year 915.

Haruniyah was renovated recently and a grave with epitaph ascribed to Imam al-Ghazali is located on the entrance of the monument. The grave of Husayn Khedive Jam, the renowned scholar on the life and works of Imam al-Ghazali is also located near this grave.

GHAZALI TOMB

In 1917 an American priest stated that Bogheh Harunieh is Ghazali's tomb. But testimonies indicate his grave was outside of the Toos fence.


In 1995, the new building was discovered that matches the details of the eroded Ghazali Tomb given in the book Mihman Nameh Bokhara in 1495. The new two story building is outside of Toos fence and is known by locals as the Ghazali Tomb.

Posted Image

From the Kufi cornice writing on the ceiling of this building, it can be said that this place was the mausoleum and tomb of Ghazali. It remains a mausoleum for the faithful.


Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali, 1058-1111 was a theologian and mystic and one of the most revered in Islam. In his autobiography, al-Munqidh min al-Dalal (The Deliverer from Error), he describes the crisis that forced him in 1095 to abandon his career and to search for an inner, direct knowledge of the reality of God. He adopted the life of a wandering ascetic and mystic. He retired to Toos in 1110. He wrote more than 50 books. The Tahafut (The Incoherence of the Philosophers) and the Ihya 'Ulum al-Din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences) are considered important.
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Posted 21 April 2008 - 07:40 AM

After having looked through some pictures of mausoleum and the tomb of The Great Scholar and Theologian, and philosofer Imam Al-Ghazali I got into great despaire by the poorest image and the construction of Ghazali`s mausoleum. It means that in such a great country like Iran there still exists the discrimmination to religiouse minority- sunnites. In Tajikistan all of the departed so-called sheikhs and mullahs who had done nothing but having deceived ignorant people have much more beautiful tomb than Great Al-Ghazali. How can Iran afford leaving the name of the person who brought the greatness and pride to iranian people lay under the unknown desert soil?! It is a great shame! O my friends, look at the foregoing pictures! was Al-ghazali such a man who deserved this kind of humiliation and despice?!

And know compare this with "Imam Reza's Holy Shrin, a man who contributed to the world heritage of thought relatively nothing:

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Posted 15 September 2009 - 08:37 AM

tanx for the articles guys
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Posted 06 October 2009 - 04:58 AM

View PostFaridun, on 21 April 2008 - 08:40 AM, said:

After having looked through some pictures of mausoleum and the tomb of The Great Scholar and Theologian, and philosofer Imam Al-Ghazali I got into great despaire by the poorest image and the construction of Ghazali`s mausoleum. It means that in such a great country like Iran there still exists the discrimmination to religiouse minority- sunnites. In Tajikistan all of the departed so-called sheikhs and mullahs who had done nothing but having deceived ignorant people have much more beautiful tomb than Great Al-Ghazali. How can Iran afford leaving the name of the person who brought the greatness and pride to iranian people lay under the unknown desert soil?! It is a great shame! O my friends, look at the foregoing pictures! was Al-ghazali such a man who deserved this kind of humiliation and despice?!


<strong class='bbc'>And know compare this with "Imam Reza's Holy Shrin, a man who contributed to the world heritage of thought relatively nothing:</strong>


<img src='http://www.persia.org/Iran_Images/mashad2.gif' alt='Posted Image' class='bbc_img' />


I think Faridun makes a good point about Al Ghazali; I myself am now starting to read classical literature so I have in my library Khayyam, Golestan, Attar, Saadi, Mulana, Rudaki, and Khwaju Kermani.

Al Ghazali was a huge figure in the Arabic speaking world in which many Iranians view Arabs in a negative way. And the war with Iraq did not help either since it justified ethnic cleansing with chemical weapons because the whole Arab world backed Saddam; to Saddam Iran was a kafer nation due to his Zoroaster roots. There is a sense that Arabs will always play dirty politics and that farsiwans are not human beings.

In a way his affiliation with being a huge role model in the Arab world had good effects but at the same time it has had a negative effect.

Furthermore, the Safavids who made Iran Shia were not Persian themselves. Yet you can still see their effect on Iran today.

Personally I love Al Ghazali and all these poets; I want to preserve as much as I because it is my duty!
آنجا که نه جان رسید ونه تن آنجا

نه مرد رسد هرگز ونه زن آنجا

گر هر دو جهان زیر و زبر گردانم

تا تو نرسانی نرسم من آنجا

(Attar Nishapour, Mokhtar Nameh)
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Posted 25 August 2011 - 05:16 PM

View PostFaridun, on 21 April 2008 - 05:40 PM, said:

After having looked through some pictures of mausoleum and the tomb of The Great Scholar and Theologian, and philosofer Imam Al-Ghazali I got into great despaire by the poorest image and the construction of Ghazali`s mausoleum. It means that in such a great country like Iran there still exists the discrimmination to religiouse minority- sunnites. In Tajikistan all of the departed so-called sheikhs and mullahs who had done nothing but having deceived ignorant people have much more beautiful tomb than Great Al-Ghazali. How can Iran afford leaving the name of the person who brought the greatness and pride to iranian people lay under the unknown desert soil?! It is a great shame! O my friends, look at the foregoing pictures! was Al-ghazali such a man who deserved this kind of humiliation and despice?!

And know compare this with "Imam Reza's Holy Shrin, a man who contributed to the world heritage of thought relatively nothing:

Posted Image



By the beginning of the 20th century, most of the first rate Islamic scholars of the past had unknown or very modest tombs. Khayyam, Rudaki, Hafiz.... had just a tomb stone and nothing else. Razi, Kharazmi, Sufi, Ghazzali and others, had no known tombs. Some lucky ones, like Avecinna (Ibn Sina) and Sa'di, just just a very modest, crumbling single room as their mausoleum. Many kings, on the other hands, still had big tombs over their graves, although they too were in bad shape due to the economic decline of the Islamic world and Iranzamin. In the past 100 years, the old tombs have been largely fixed (like that of Attar), and new mausoleums have been built over the known graves of Khayyam, Ibn Sina, Hafiz, Sa'di, Rudaki, etc. Some tombs are just about now being discovered, like that of Imam Muhammad Ghazzali. So, in time they will get their own modern mausoleum, as Ghazzali will.

The Shia imams, like Imam Reza, belong to all Muslims not just the Shia. He is the descendant of our Prophet and one who the Prophet would have loved to gaze upon. So, instead of being jealous of his tomb compared to that of Ghazzali, just pray that Ghazzali would also get a mausoleum as grand as his scientific stature...
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Posted 25 August 2011 - 05:22 PM

View PostFaridun, on 21 April 2008 - 04:44 PM, said:

Question: Mohamed Islam: One of the leading Islamic Philosophers was Al-Ghazali. Who was he? Can you tell us about him?

Answer: Abdel Wahab El Messeri: He was, like most Islamic thinkers or philosophers of the time, quite versatile, well rounded: He was a lawyer, a scientist, a jurist, a judge. Non of the Islamic thinkers were confined to the discipline of philosophy. They had comprehensive knowledge (alchemists. Scientists, literary critics, mystics, etc.). This well-roundedness and comprehensiveness occurred in the west only during the renaissance.

He was born in Tus, near the Iranian border in 1058, during the time of the last florescence in Islamic Philosophy. He went to the Nazamia School in Baghdad, where he made quite an impression. He was preceded by Al-Farabi and Ibn Sina. The philosophical outlook before him was quite impressive.

Later in Baghdad he underwent a change, he started suspecting every thing he had learned. The radical skepticism of Descartes. He is always compared to Descartes. But differences between them are much more than resemblances. Descartes fell back on the Ego to resolve the crises of meaning. ?I think therefore I am? This was the beginning of modern rationalism which resulted in the absolute polarity of man versus nature. Now we know that nature conquered man.

Al-Ghazali left school and went on a quest. When he returned, he came with a world outlook which represented a synthesis of the best in Islam. It was based on a critique of all the trends in Islamic thought during his time. He pointed out

The limitations of the mystics ( Sufis ) The tendency to contemplation and esoteric knowledge. Religion has to express itself in exoteric learning. This was quite a shift in mysticism. He pointed out that action is part of mysticism. You know then you act. Just to know is not enough. He said mystics try to get some kind of union with God, but there has to be a gap between man and God. This sets him apart from those who tended toward heresy. They wanted to bridge that gap between the created and the Creator, but the Islamic World Outlook depends on that gap. Man should not try to bridge that gap, to have union with God, but he must strive to get closer to God. The Muslim learns to recognize the gap. This is of the essence in Islam. Those who want to bridge the gap, and reach God, and have union with Him, are Pantheists. Islam is very much opposed to Pantheism.
He addressed himself to the Mukalimun (Theologians) They served Islam by solving some problems, but really did not solve most problems.
As for the Philosophers, he criticized them most severely. Firstly, they believed in eternity of the world, co-eternal with God ( They were believers but erred on certain points). Secondly they made God very distant from man. Thirdly they believed in a world controlled by cause and effect. He refuted these and other points in a book: Incoherence of the Philosophers.
The Cosmology of Al-Ghazali: man is here, God is there. In between is the world of norms, both ontological and psychological, Moral and axiological. In other words, it is not a an arid world, or abyss. It is a field. One can interact with god in that field. If man fulfills some of these norms, and man recognizes his separateness, he can get closer to God. There is a great role for mysticism. Not leading to unity with God, but simply spiritual exercises. The mind for Al-Ghazali is not , like for other philosophers, absolute. It can not be. Otherwise, whence would it derive its norms.

Causality: This is his real contribution to philosophy. Philosophers say: cause lead to effect. Al-Ghazali says : to follow after does not mean to follow from. He says : the power is not the cause. The power is God. God has imposed the pattern. The cause is God. Not like ?atura naturans?of Spinoza/ Descartes, they make this latent in nature. This is Pantheism. The patterning force in nature is eminent in it, but transcendental at the same time. This is the essence of Islamic Epistemology, which means: we can know nature but not completely because of the power that is there, both latent and transcendental. Unlike the modern Secular Concept, where you have to know nature completely, and you control it, and harness it to your service. Of course, since modern western man has failed, now you have Materialist Irrationalism, where they claim there is no causality at all. We go from absolute causality of the Cartesian or Hegelian variety, to the Post-modern denial of causality completely.

The Ghazali Islam assures us a level of certainty, enough to go along, but it does not promise us absolute certainty and absolute control of the universe.

MI: The other contribution of Al-Ghazali was the revival of the science of religion?

AWM: He wanted to defy the sciences of religion and at the same time infuse spirit into them. The essence of Al-Ghazali? Epistemology was this attempt to bring in the full complexity of man. With science there had to be emotion. The heart had to be operative, not just the mind. He then moved on to Miskat un Anwar (the mystical: the Niche of Light) where he talks about certain mystical exercises .

He also had educational books to fulfill the function of a well rounded, versatile philosopher: Educator, thinker, psychologist, mystic.

MI: What kind of following did he have?

AWM: I understand that Al-Ghazali dominated the Islamic world from that time on. There was opposition who rejected his view. Saying that it would subvert the mind completely. The Philosophers saw man in the form of polarity: it is either the heart or the mind. Whereas Al-Ghazali says man operated in a complex integrated duality. That is why he said there was a field and not a gap between man and God.

MI: How were the philosophers viewed or received by the ruling elite of the time.

AWM: There were ups and downs. For example : the Mu?azilites or pure rationalist : if the ruler was of the same persuasion, they would be supported, if not they were persecuted.

Al-Ghazali: he had no problem, because he had ideas of order. He tried to harness the mystical impulse, which sometimes ran amok.

MI: Al-Ghazali as a jurist, what role did he play?

AWM: The same interplay of mind and heart. Between the attempt to apply the idea of law inspired by Divine Revelation. He did not believe in empirical law, but did not reject it. It is all encapsulated in Divine dictates.

MI: How was the world after Al-Ghazali?

AWM: The Mongol invasion of the Islamic world occurred, and then the Crusades. The Islamic World withdrew inwards. Al-Ghazali is sometimes blamed for this withdrawal. But it was a result of these historical forces which were much more powerful in determining the future developments.



You see how this Arab meticulously avoids calling Ghazzali an Iranian? The only mention of the homeland of Ghazzali in his article is that "his tomb is near Iranian borders at Tous"! Which side of the border and on whose soil? I hate Arab nationalist liars who steal from all other Muslims their point of pride. And yet, Arabs produced next to NOTHING after Muhammad and until AD1200. Today, they just still the scholars of the Iranic people, the Turkic people, the Hispanic people, and call them their own! Shame on them.

These scholars belong TO ALL ISLAMIC WORLD not to any particular people. Arab nationalists trying to steel them for their own kind is pathetic... as happens in this article by the Arab nationalist, Abdel Wahab El Messeri
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