Survival of the Persian Culture E-mail
Historically, the resistance against the invading Greeks, Arabs, Turks and Mongols, etc. came from the non-Persian Iranics, in some cases being liberators. In the post-Islamic period, the non-Persian Iranics staged most of the resistance: Papak of Aturpatkan, Abu-Moslem of Khorasan, Maziar of Tabarestan, and the Safarids of Seistan. The Persians of the south and their aristocracy remained neutral. Some of them, like the Barmakids, in fact joined the Arab Caliphate as chancellors. Barmakids, for instance, were apparently the descendents of Hormoz son of Khorow I and they became the Chancellor of Haroon'a'Rashid.

Considering culture, for example, "Firdowsi of Tus" played a great role, in the survival of the Persian language. Firdowsi who came from a Parthian district, revived the Persian language in his great epic work, Shahnama (the Book of Kings). One should remember that many of the "Persian" poets were from the ethnically non-Persian territories. Poets like Firdowsi, Rumi, Khayyam, Naser Khosrow, Fakhrodin Asad Gorgani (from Hirkania who wrote the beatiful Vis [or Veys] and Ramin) and Attar are all actually natives of the Parthian territories. The same goes for scientific and cultural figures like Khwarazmi, Tusi and Ibn-e-Sina. One should also mention of the efforts of Khayyam of Nishapour in restoring the Iranian calendar system. The whole idea that Mohammad's migration from Mecca to Medina "had in fact taken place" on the first day of the Iranian solar calendar (Spring Equinox), separated Iranian chronology and subsequently history (under King Jalloldin Malekshah ) from the rest of the Islamic civilization. Contribution achieved by a man from Nishapour, a non-Persian territory. Such a conclusion that the Iranics outside Persia had developed a strong sense of freedom that resorted to combat if necessary can be seen in the Shiite Movement of Sarbedaran [The Hanged] that overthrew the Mongolian dynasty of Khorasan. According to Mir-Khand and a few other historians of the time, and as Abd-orafi Haghighat (a modern expert in this area show), the Sarbedaran movement paid a lot of attention to Shahnameh mythologies, despite the Shiite pretentions of their religious leaders. Names such as Pahlevan Efandiar Basthini appear besides Hassan and Hosseineh Hamzeh, while historians report that Sarbedaraans were reciting Shahnaameh poetry on the day that they defeated three Mongolian armies separately.
The Persian Langauge E-mail
History and Origins of Persian (Parsi or Farsi) and Dari-Persian language
By: UCLA, Language Materials Projects

Persian is spoken today primarily in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, but was historically a more widely understood language in an area ranging from the Middle East to India. Significant populations of speakers in other Persian Gulf countries (Bahrain, Iraq, Oman, Republic of Yemen and the United Arab Emirates), as well as large communities around the World.

Total numbers of speakers is high: about 55% of Iran's population are Persian speakers; about 65% of Tajikistan's population are Tajik-Persian speakers: over 25% of the Afghanistan's population are Dari-Persian speakers; and about 1% of the population of Pakistan are Dari-Persian speakers as well.

Linguistic Affiliation
Persian is a subgroup of West Iranian languages that include the closely related Persian languages of Dari and Tajik; the less closely related languages of Luri, Bakhtiari and Kumzari; and the non-Persian dialects of Fars Province. Other more distantly related languages of this group include Kurdish, spoken in Turkey, Iraq, and Iran; and Baluchi, spoken in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan. Even more distantly related are languages of the East Iranian group, which includes Pashtu, spoken in Afghanistan; Ossete, spoken in North Ossetian, South Ossetian, and Caucusus of former USSR; and Yaghnobi, spoken in Tajikistan. Other Iranian languages of note are Old Persian and Avestan (the sacred language of the Zoroastrians for which texts exist from the 6th century B.C.).
Iranian art and poetry in the works of European poets E-mail
No nation's language, literature and art can remain isolated ineffectual. Nations influence one another, yet these reciprocal effects become apparent when we compare the art and literature of one nation with another. For instance, a significant part of the French prose and verse has been inspired by the ancient Greek and latin literature, during and after the Renaissance period. English literature, was under the influence of French philosophers and writers during the 18th and 19th centuries. Greek mythology and its famous stories of myths like Prometheus, Oedipus, lphigenia, Antigone, etc, have been great sources of inspiration for the tragedians and have maintained their influence even on the modern literature of Europe so much so that contemporary European writere like Jean Anouilh, Jean Paul Sartre, Andre Gide; Jean Giraudoux, and others were deeply affected by the mythology and literature of the ancient Greece.

After proselyting to Islam, the Iranian thinkers and artists played a significant role in enriching and enhancing the Islamic civilization and culture. The expanse of Islamic territories caused the works of Iranian scholars such as Bu Ali Sina (Aviceinna), Razi and many other Iranian scientists to spread widely through Europe and Islamic lands. However, to ascertain the effect of the Iranian art and literature on European works, the periods of the Middle Ages and Renaissance must be left behind entering the seventeenth (17) century. The persian literaure and the thoughts of the prominent Iranian scholars started their influence in Europe in this century because part of the Persian literary works, like Gulistan of Saadi was translated into French.
Influence of Iranian Literature on Turkish Literature E-mail
In 1037 Saljuq Turks invaded Iran and founded a dynasty which continued to reign in Iran till 1197 A.D. These Saljuq Turks, even prior to their invasion and conquest, were in touch with Iranian civilization and culture. When they came to power the Saljuqs accepted Farsi as their court language.

It was during their supremacy that great men of letters like Umar Khayyam, Khwajeh Nizam-al-Molk and Ghazali flourished. A branch of these Saljuqs went and occupied Turkey and they continued to reign in that country even after the conquest of Iran by the Mongols.

When Mowlana Jallaluddin, the great mystic poet of Iran left Balkh on the eve of Mongol invasion and went to reside in Quniyya in Antolia, he felt at home in his new place of residence because there, he could also converse in Farsi and could recite his mystic verses in Persian where everyone would understand and enjoy his verses.

Although various Turkish dialects as well as Persian were in use in the Saljukid domains, the court and literary language of the whole kingdom continued to be Farsi. As Mr. Rothfield (Davar, Iran and its culture, p. 331) points out, even here it was an Iranian poet who ushered the Turkish language into existence.
CHESS : Iranian or Indian Invention? E-mail
Murray and van der Linde the two chess historians were almost certain that the birthplace of chess was Indian sub-continent, but most certainly it was invented in Iran for the following reasons: (To be brief I can outline the factors) .

1): Indian literature has no early mentions of chess but Persian literature does:

The first unmistakable reference in Sanskrit writings is in the "Harschascharita" by the court poet Bana, written between 625 and 640. On the other hand, pre-Islamic documents have solidly connected chess with the last period of the Sasanian rulers in Iran (VI-VII century). The "Kamamak", an epical treatise about the founder of this dynasty, mentions the game of chatrang as one of the accomplishments of the legendary hero. It has a proving force that a game under this name was popular in the period of redaction of the text, supposedly the end of the 6th century or the beginning of the 7th. Closely related is a shorter poem from about the same period entitled in Pahlavi "Chatrang-Nâmag", dealing with the introduction of chess in Iran.
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