Nawroz in the Islamic Era E-mail

Professor Shapur Shahbazi


The Islamic conquest altered many Iranian traditions specifically associated with national ideology, imperial institutions, and Zoroastrian rituals. Although Nowruz was an established symbol of these three aspects, it did survive while less significant festivals were eclipsed by their Islamic rivals and gradually became abandoned by indifferent Mongol and Turkish rulers or hostile clerical authorities during Safavid and Qajar periods. Nowruz survived because it was so profoundly engrained in Iranian traditions, history, and cultural memory that Iranian identity and Nowruz mutually buttressed each other, and the emergence of a distinctly Persian Muslim society—and later the emergence of a nation state with the advent of the Safavids—legitimized the ancient national festival and allowed it to flourish with slight modifications or elaborations.


Indeed, as will be set out in subsequent sections, the incremental expansion of Nowruz ceremonies from the Safavids, through the Qajars, to the Pahlavi period enabled the court to parade its power and strengthened its attempts at forming a stronger central authority. Besides, it explains the establishment of increasingly sophisticated and protocol-ridden royal audiences with all the pomp and ceremony they could muster. Like all rituals, therefore, it both manifested a belief or ideology and reinforced it through an annual recital. It was precisely because Nowruz was associated from the outset with cultural memories of the splendor and divinely bestowed power of the royal courts of pre-Islamic Persia that it was attractive to rulers, from the Abbasid caliphs to the Pahlavis. Along with its many ceremonies, and most notably that of gift exchange, it provided the rulers with an alternative source of affirming and enhancing their power and prestige through a strictly non-Islamic channel; for unlike religious festivals, they could appear and be celebrated as the focal point and the peerless heroes of the occasion.


While most of the traditions now associated with Nowruz have been inherited from the past usages, no comprehensive history of Nowruz in the Islamic period has been written. Such an account must be pieced together from occasional notices in general and local histories, brief records by geographers, and scattered references in works of poets and storytellers. Only for recent times do we have detailed information in the form of eyewitness reports by travelers and, more importantly, studies of contemporary practices throughout Persia and countries affected by Persian culture. But even these are problematic, as the former category mainly describes court usages and the latter usually gives uncritical narratives embellished with rhetorical and, frequently, fanciful interpretations.


History up to the Safavid period


The Arabs captured the capital of the Sasanian Empire on a Nowruz day, taking the celebrating inhabitants by surprise (Yaʿqubi, I, p. 198). Henceforth, the early Arab governors forcefully levied heavy Nowruz and Mehragān taxes on the conquered people (Jahšiāri, pp. 15, 24; Ṣuli, p. 219). The Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs retained this onerous burden of taxation on their conquered subjects, but, at the same time, they also celebrated both Nowruz and Mehragān with considerable relish and pomp, thereby helping to keep alive Nowruz and its many traditions (Masʿudi, Moruj VII, p. 277; Tanuḵi, pp. 145-46; Ahsan, pp. 287-88).


Later, other Islamic dynasties of Persia did the same (for the Taherids, see Jāḥeẓ, p. 150; for the Samanids, see Biruni, tr. Sachau, p. 217), and the court poets praised the occasion and offered their congratulatory panegyrics. Yāqut reports (Boldān, Cairo, VI, p. 258; cf. Moqaddasi, p. 431) that the Buyid ruler ʿAżod-al-Dawla(r. 949-83) customarily welcomed Nowruz in a majestic hall, wherein servants had placed gold and silver plates and vases full of fruit and colorful flowers. He sat on a costly seat (masnad), and the court astronomer came forward, kissed the ground, and congratulated him on the arrival of the New Year. Then the king summoned the musicians and singers and invited his boon companions. They entered and filed in to their assigned places, and all enjoyed a great festive occasion. Beyhaqi describes the lavish celebration of Nowruz at the Ghaznavid court (Beyhaqi, ed. Fayyāż, pp. 9, 12, 704, 751, 815), and some of the most beautiful descriptive opening passages of Persian courtly panegyrics (especially by Farroḵi, Manučehri, and Masʿud-e Saʿd-e Salmān) are in praise of Nowruz.Their simple yet melodious rhythms suggest that they may have been accompanied by music. The melodies known as the “Nowruzi” airs, apparently inherited from the Sasanian period, included the Great Nowruz (Nowruz-e bozorg), Nowruz-e Kay Qobād, the Lesser Nowruz (nowruz-e ḵordak or ḵārā), the Edessan Nowruz (Nowruz-e rahāwi,comprising the Arabian and Persian melodies), and Nowruz-e Ṣabā (Dehḵodā, s.v. “Nowruz”; Borumand-e Saʿid, pp. 302-8). In the 14th century, Ḥāfeẓ says that “the melody of the Nowruz breeze (bād-e nowruzi) rekindles the inner light, and the melody of the “Throne of victory” (taḵt-e piruzi) inspires the song of the nightingale intoxicated by flowers.”


The Nowruz festivities were by no means restricted to the royal courts. It was “a solemn feast through all of Persia, … observed not only in the great cities, but celebrated with extraordinary rejoicings in every little town, village, and hamlet” (Lane, 1848, II, p. 462; see also Biḡami, I, p. 150; Farāmarz b. Ḵodādād, I, p. 49; for testimonies of poets see Borumand-e Saʿid, pp. 253-384). In Shiraz, Muslims and Zoroastrians celebrated Nowruz together and decorated the bazaars (Moqaddasi, p. 429). Biruni testifies that many ancient Nowruz rites were still observed in his time. People grow, he says, “seven kinds of grains on seven columns and from their growth they draw inferences as regards the crop of the year whether it would be good or bad” (Biruni, Chronology, tr. Sachau, p. 217). They held the first day of Nowruz as particularly auspicious, and the dawn the most auspicious hour (Idem, p. 217). Good omens appearing before Nowruz included fires and light glowing on the western bank of the Tigris opposite Kalwāḏā, and on the Denā (text: dmā) mountain in Fārs. Tasting honey thrice in the morning of Nowruz and lighting three candles before speaking were thought to ward off diseases (Idem, p. 216). People exchanged presents (notably sugar), kindled fire (to consume all corruptions), bathed in the streams (Idem, p. 218), and sprinkled water on each other.


Ebn Faqih (p. 165) specifies that “this ancient custom is still observed in Hamadan, Isfahan, Dināvar, and the surrounding regions,” and the Tarjoma-ye Tafsir-e Ṭabari(I, p. 148, n. 1) adds that in so doing people said: “May you live long! (zenda bāšiā!zenda bāšiā!).” We may add that to this day traditional households sprinkle rose water on relatives and guests. According to Kušyār (apud Taqizāda, p. 191), the sixth day of Nowruz was called “Water-pouring [day]” (ṣabb al-māʾ) and was revered as the Great Nowruz and “the Day of Hope,” because it commemorated the completion of the act of creation. Ḡazāli (I, p. 522) strongly disapproved of Muslims celebrating Nowruz by decorating the bazaars, preparing sweets, and making or selling children’s toys, wooden shields, sword, trumpets, and so on.”


In 897, the Abbasid caliph al-Moʿtaẓed (r. 892-902) forbade the people of Baghdad “to kindle bonfire on New Year’s Eve and pour water [on passersby] on New Year’s Day,” but fearing riot he rescinded the order (Ṭabari, III, p. 2163). The Fatimid caliphs also repeatedly forbade the kindling of fire and sprinkling of water at Nowruz (Maqrizi, p. 394). Ṣābi described the rules issued against Nowruz celebration in the fourth century Baghdad as follows: “A Muslim was forbidden to dress like a ḏemmi [that is, people of the book, namely Jews, Christiams, and Ṣābians, and by extension Zoroastrians], … to give an apple to someone on Nawrüz to honor the day, to color eggs at their feast,” and, in general, “sharing in jollifications on that occasion was condemned.” Some non-Muslims “hired a special cook to work during the night to have the dishes fresh in the morning, gave parties for relatives and friends, at which they served green melons, plums, peaches, and dates if they were in season.” Women bought special Nowruz perfumes, and “eggs were dyed in various colors. To sprinkle perfume on a man … and tread seven times on him was a means of driving away the evil eye, laziness and fever. Antimony and rue were used to improve the sight during the coming year. Colleges were shut and the students played. … Muslims drank wine in public and ate cleaned lentils like theḏemmis and joined them in throwing water on folks.” Respectable peoples threw water on each other in their houses or gardens; the commoners did this on the street (Ketāb al-Hafawāt, tr. Tritton, pp. 144-45).


A detailed account of Nowruz celebration in the 10th-century Isfahan is given by Ebn Ḥawqal (p. 364): “During the Nowruz festival, people gather for seven days in the bazaar of Karina, a suburb of Isfahan, engaged in merriment; they enjoy various food and go around visiting decorated shops. The inhabitants and those coming from other places to participate in this festival, spend a good deal of money, wear beautiful clothes, and take part in gatherings for plays and merrymaking. Skillful singers, both male and female, take their places side by side on the riverside along the palaces. The whole atmosphere is filled with joy and happiness. Many assemble on rooftops and in the markets, engage in festivities, drinking, eating, and consuming sweets, not letting an idle moment to pass by. … No one disturbs them, for their rulers have allowed this festival, and it is a well-established tradition. It is said that besides the abundance of fruits, drinks, and food brought in and sold for a meager price, the expenses of the night of the spring equinox amount to 200,000 dirhams. As for the prices, 2,000-dirham weight of finest grapes costs a mere five dirhams” (see also the eyewitness description by Māfarroḵi [tr., pp. 17-18] and the testimony of Nasafi, p. 168).


A particular custom was the enthroning of the “Nowruzian ruler” (mir-e Nowruzi, somewhat similar to the lord of misrule in Medieval Western literature and folklore). A commoner was elected as “king” and provided with regalia (often mockingly old and unseemly), a throne, court officials, and a number of troops, and he ruled for a few days and was fully obeyed. Then he was dethroned, beaten, and forced to flee (Qazvini, 1944; Idem, 1945). In some regions, particularly in Kurdistan, this ancient tradition is still practiced (Wilson, p. 245; Keyvān, p. 119; Bois, p. 477; Mostowfi, I, pp. 351-53).


Religious views on Nowruz


Opposition to ancient Iranian observances was natural in a strictly Muslim society, and a few attempts at restricting Nowruz rites have already been noted. Some claimed that the Prophet had told those who celebrated Nowruz and Mehragān that God had given them two superior feasts, namely, al-Feṭr (end of fasting month) and al-Naḥr (the Feast of Sacrifice; al-Ālusi, p. 336). Others asserted that ʿAli b. Abi Ṭāleb (d. 661) had said “for me a feast day is that on which I do not sin” (Ḡazāli, II, p. 566). Nāṣer-e Ḵosrow (cited by Honari, p. 194) expressed “shame” (ʿār) when hearing about the auspiciousness of Nowruz: “although throughout the world Nowruz is dear and pleasant to the ignorant (gar če be jahān ʿaziz-ast o ḵoš zi nādān), to me it verily appears as unsavory and demeaning (nāḵoš o kᵛār).”


Abu Ḥāmed Moḥammad Ḡazāli (1058-1111) declared that all festive acts must be abandoned and one should fast on such days and not even mention the name of Nowruz and Sada so that these “Zoroastrian observances” become “degraded and turned into perfectly ordinary days and no name or trace of them shall remain” (Ḡazāli, I, p. 522). In contrast, many legitimized Nowruz as an Islamic Iranian feast. A tradition attributed to the Prophet (hadith) describes him accepting a bowl of sweets as the Nowruz gift and blessing the day as the occasion of renovation of life with its special custom of sprinkling water on each other as the symbol of divine rainfall (Biruni, p. 215). Another report claims that ʿAli b. Abi Ṭāleb received Nowruz gifts from a Persian landlord (dehqānān) and said: “May every day of ours be a Nowruz!” (Pseudo-Jāḥeż, pp. 237-38).


Scholars wrote in Persian and Arabic on the history of Nowruz, its rites, auspiciousness, and the various properties of its days; others collected poetry composed in its honor or words rhyming with Nowruz. The accounts by Musā b. ʿIsā Kasravi, Jāḥeẓ, Pseudo-Jāḥez, Biruni, and Pseudo-Ḵayyām still constitute our main source on Nowruz. Several short treatises on the characteristics of Nowruz or literary, religious, and astrological comments on it are also extant (ed. Hārun V, pp. 17-48), but many others referred to in the sources (for a list see Ṣayyād, pp. 81-3) have not survived. Several calendar reforms were effected in by the Abbasids and the Buyids before the Saljuq sultan Jalāl-al-Dawla Malekšāh (r. 465-85/1073-1092) established in 471/1079 the Julian-style solar year that fixes the beginning of the calendar year (Nowruz) at the vernal equinox (Taqizāda, pp. 156-80.


A widely reported hadith (Majlesi, Beḥār LIX, pp. 143-91; Mollā Fayż apud Moʿin, 1947, pp. 73-84) transmitted by Moʿallā b. Ḵanis, a Persian disciple of the sixth Shiʿite Imam Jaʿfar-e Ṣādeq (d. 765), gives Nowruz a very strong Islamic significance and recounts for each of the “thirty days of each month” qualities which are directly parallel to those given in the Pahlavi treatise of Māh farvardīn rüč xordād(Markwart, pp. 742-55) even with regard to the names of the patron deities of those days (cf. Moʿin, pp. 73-84; Monzavi, pp. 34-37; Shahbazi, pp. 255-56). Jaʿfar-e Ṣādeq said that Nowruz was a most blessed day because it was on that day when God made the Sun rise, the wind blow, and the earth flourish; the occasion when He made a covenant with the pre-existing souls of mankind to worship none but Him, brought Noah’s ark ashore safely, and the day when He will resurrect the dead by ordering the living to pour water on them (hence the auspiciousness of sprinkling water on each other at Nowruz). It was on that day that God sent Gabriel with His message to Moḥammad, that the Prophet shattered the idols of Mecca and nominated ʿAli at theḠadir-e ḵomm as his legatee (on the date see Taqizāda, p. 154, n. 310), as well as the day when ʿAli defeated the heretics at Nahravān, and when the Mahdi, the Lord of Time, will appear. Indeed, “no Nowruz comes unless we expect salvation from grief, for this day is an attribute of ours and our Shiʿites.” After the publication of such works, the faithful were assigned the task of greeting Nowruz with elaborate prayers which include several suras of the Qorʾān (Nabāʾi).


Later History


The festive celebration of Nowruz during the Safavid period is well attested (see bibliography). In preparation to it, commanders, ministers, favored officials, rich merchants, and guild leaders were given pieces of land in the vast park of Bāḡ-e Naqš-e Jahān of Isfahan to decorate and illuminate. Each group set up tents with canopies of silk and brocade, and erected booths variously embellished; servants offered drinks and sweets to large crowds for several days. In the royal palace, a large table cloth (sofra) was spread on the floor of the Hall of Mirrors (tālār-e āʾina), and on it were placed large bowls of water and plates of various fruits, greeneries, sweets, and colored eggs. According to Chardin (II, p. 267), in keeping with an ancient Iranian tradition, on the eve of Nowruz people send each other colored eggs as gifts. The shah gave some five hundred of them to his womenfolk. The eggs are encased in gold and decorated with four miniature paintings.


The shah sat at the head of the sofra, amongst the royal women he favored most, who were all bedecked in jewelry. They engaged in pleasant conversation, and then, at the shah’s command, female dancers, musicians, and singers entered and entertained the audience. In another chamber the court astronomer was trying to determine the exact moment of “the turn of the year” (taḥwil-e sāl, that is, when the Sun entered the sign of Aries at the vernal equinox).As soon as he gave the sign that the New Year had arrived, pages sent off firecrackers into the sky, and, seeing this, the household female servants let out cries of exultation thereby announcing the good news to the king and his companion.


At the same time, the news was made public by some palace guards firing off their muskets and citadel guards their cannons, whereupon an official band occupying the center of the great town square (Meydān-e naqš-e jahān) beat on their drums and kettledrums and blew into their wind instruments (sornāy). Shouts of joy filled the air; eunuchs opened special bags of wild rue (esfand) and sprinkled seeds into the fire, causing the air to be pleasantly scented. The shah, as all other Iranians, gazed at a bowl of water the moment the year “ turned,” believing that “water is the symbol of prosperity” (āb rowšanāʾi-st, lit. ‘water is light’) and if one looks at it at the turn of the year he would enjoy happiness all year long. A few prayers (usually Qurʾanic verses, extensively cited by Majlesi, II) were recited, and everyone wearing new clothes drank some water or rosewater, congratulated elders, kinsfolk and friends, and partook of sweets. Elders presented gifts to the members of household, relatives, servants, and friends, and distributed alms to the poor, dervishes, and local sayyeds (descendants of the Imams).


In the palace, the shah held a great banquet with wine and music for military commanders, senior civil officials, foreign envoys and notable merchants. In other households elaborately prepared dinners were served, and in general everyone enjoyed the occasion with drinks, music, visitation, and exchanges of gifts and pleasantries. Children were particularly happy, and enjoyed the holidays running around, receiving various gifts, playing various games (specially the “egg-cracking game,” similar to the children’s game of conkers played with chestnuts in the West), and watching polo, wrestling, and horse racing.


The gifts exchanged depended on the status of the individuals. The shah sat in the audience hall and distributed gifts, usually gold and or silver coins placed in small colorful bags, to the courtiers, kinsfolk, household servants and foreign envoys. He received in turn precious gifts from his harem, ministers, representatives of social groups and professions, provincial governors, and envoys of neighboring countries. The usual “gifts” to the shah included slave girls (especially from Armenia and Georgia, some of whom ended up as royal wives and others were given to favorite officials), money, prized horses, and beasts of burden with precious saddlery (for the gifts exchanged between the governor of Fārs province and Shah ʿAbbās I see Arberry, p. 19). The shah and rich notables also ordered the slaughter of livestock according to religious rites and distributed the meat to the needy. During the following days, people went outdoors and spent the time in the open air playing, feasting, horseracing and, when possible, hunting.

Nāder Shah Afshar (r. 1736-47) always celebrated Nowruz by holding a feast and distributing gifts and robes of honor, as did Karim Khan Zand (r. 1751-79) and his successors (see bibliography). In the Qajar period (1779-1925), the public practices were similar to the contemporary observances (see below), but the official celebration (salām, lit. ‘greeting’) underwent elaborations. Generally, the shah received guests consisting of kinsmen, military and civil official, leading religious figures, tribal chiefs, poets, heads of various guilds, and, increasingly, foreign notables. Nāṣer-al-Din Shah (r. 1848-96) began to regiment the festivities by introducing military bands, sending invitation cards, and holding salām into three audience sessions. The salām-e taḥwil (‘greeting for the turn of the year’) started an hour before the turning of the year and lasted for about four hours.


The table of haft sin was prepared in front of the Peacock Throne in the Museum Hall (tālār-e muza), and dignitaries gathered around it: military officials headed by the crown prince on the one side, civil officials headed by the chief finance minister (mostowfi-al-mamālek) on the other side; the leading clergy, Qajar princes carrying royal arms and insignia, and cabinet ministers headed by the prime minister (ṣadr-e aʿẓam) flanked the throne. The Master of Ceremonies announced the arrival of the shah, who appeared bedecked in jewelry and proceeded, among the bowing of the silent audience, to the throne and took his seat. The court orator (ḵaṭib-al-mamālek) would read a sermon in praise of the Prophet and the first Imam until the court astronomer announced the turning of the year. The shah offered his felicitations first to the ulama and then to the officials, recited some verses of the Qorʾān, drank a sip of water, and presented gifts (coins inside small red-silk bags) to the clergymen, who took their leave forthwith. Then the music band played cheerful tunes, and the shah distributed gifts to the audience and left for the inner quarter of the palace (andarun).


On the second day, a general audience was held in the Marble Palace (salām-e ʿāmm-e taḵt-e marmar). The shah and senior Qajar princes carrying royal regalia assembled, together with civil and military officials, received foreign envoys and presented them with gifts, paying particular attention to the Ottoman ambassador. Then the shah sat on a bejeweled chair placed upon the Marble Throne, and his aid announced the start of the public (ʿāmma) audience, whereupon music bands played, cannons roared, drums beat, and trumpets sounded. The poet laureate recited a poem in honor of Nowruz and in praise of the shah, and the official orator closed the ceremony with a flamboyantly eulogistic address. On the third day, the salām-e sar-e dar, a truly jovial public occasion, was held in the Marble Palace. The shah appeared on a balcony accompanied by officials as well as favorite womenfolk and attendants, and the public participated in the festivities. Ropedancers, keepers, and trainers monkeys, bears, and fighting rams entertained the crowd in front of the palace, and received their rewards. Court jesters made everyone laugh, and wrestlers fought for the highly coveted position of the supreme paladin (pahlavān-e pāyetaḵt), which entailed receiving a special armband. On the thirteenth day (sizdah bedar) people moved out of the towns and celebrated the end of Nowruz in parks, gardens, and along the streams (see below).

In recent times, the official celebrations were condensed into one day of public audience, broadcast since the 1940s by the radio and since the 1960s by the television. These media have tended to standardize the Nowruz ceremonies and, consequently, a great deal of regional variations is fast disappearing.


In Contemporary Persia


Nowruz remains the single most important national festival of the Iranians who celebrate it with considerable zeal and pomp (Zoroastrian practices are treated separately). In the aftermath of the Islamic Revolution of 1979, attempts were made by some influential clerical authorities to dampen public enthusiasm for Nowruz, and there was a discernible tension between the various factions on the amount of freedom and scope allowed for the display of public jubilation and display of nationalistic sentiments during the Nowruz period. But this somewhat austere and puritanical approach was soon toned down: partly because of the Iran-Iraq war and the sentiments that it aroused, and partly because of the overall policy of the leaders of the Islamic Republic in the post-Khomeyni period to depict the regime as both religious and culturally proud of its ancient heritage. In this way, the fate of this festival is akin to the reception of that other ‘Iranian’ symbol, the Shāh-nāma, which also suffered only a brief and partial eclipse. Moreover, as has already been stated, the present-day religious authorities have a veritable arsenal of literature at hand in the voluminous corpus of religious discourse from the Safavids onwards that incorporate Nowruz into Shiʿite lore and popular anecdotal literature.


At present, government offices are closed for five fays and educational institutions for thirteen. Houses are cleaned, and new clothes obtained. A fortnight before Nowruz, wheat (or barley, or both, sometimes lentil and other seeds as well) are grown in earthenware plates or in a bag of thin cloth wrapped around a clay jar. In rural areas the nowruz-ḵᵛānān, that is, minstrels consisting of boys, youths, and even adults, go around at evenings before Nowruz and stop before doors; they recite chants in praise of Nowruz, play on drums (tonbak) and tambourines, and receive rewards in kind or money. In 1842 Alexander Chodzko collected a good selection of such chants in Māzandarān (for contemporary chants see Maleki; Darviši; ʿOnṣori; Honari, pp. 107-16; Purkarim). Nowadays in cities, especially Tehran, Ḥāji Firuz performs the nowruz-ḵᵛāni.


In rural areas, many people still greet Nowruz by collecting rainwater for their Nowruz sofra, and by kindling bonfires on rooftops, in alleys or in courtyards. In towns this has become an elaborate ceremony on the evening of the last Wednesday of the year to kindle seven or nine fires and to jump over them while chanting a verse . Until recently, a few days before Nowruz wooden arches were erected at street junctions, bazaars, and shops, and they were lavishly decorated with variegated carpets, tapestry, pictures, mirrors, flowers, and greeneries (Massé, I, pp. 145-46). At present, fruits, sweets, and colored eggs are placed in containers together with pitchers of rose water and pure water.


People of every call and means stroll around or get busy buying large quantities of sweets, fruits, and dry nuts. The sweets, most importantly the sowhān, samanu/samani, and small cookies made with chickpea or rice flour, are prepared at home or bought from confectioneries. Most favored fruits used to be apples, sour orange, lemon, quince, grapes, and pomegranate, but now various oranges, pears, even bananas, etc., are in style. The nuts include pistachios, shelled almond and walnut, and roasted chickpeas, all mixed with melon seeds, dried apricots, raisins, and dried mulberries. The fruits, sweets, and nuts are placed in the sofra-ye haft sin, together with bowls of water (one containing a red fish) and milk, candles and colored eggs, a mirror, the sabze, a few garlic cloves, vegetables (tarragon, leek, spring onions, basil, etc.), some new coins, a copy of the Qorʾān (or other holy scriptures, depending on the faith of the household), some cheese, and a container of samanu/samani. Greeting cards of all sorts and contents are sent to family and friends. Families in bereavement do not celebrate Nowruz.

Many still believe that the departed souls of relatives will visit the house on the eve of Nowruz, and the houses are accordingly cleaned and a meal, or ranginak (a sort of pastry with pitted dates), or ahlā (sweetmeat made with rice flour, sugar, and saffron) is prepared and distributed (either in the streets or cemeteries) as offerings in memory of the departed ancestors (Honari, pp. 58-63 with literature; cf. Faqiri, 1971), in the tradition of Fravardagān. Also, there is still a widespread belief that on the morning of Nowruz a child or a handsome adult must knock at the door and when asked “who is it?” and “what have you brought?” reply: “I am the fortune and I bring heath and prosperity” (Inostrantsev, pp. 100-10, tr. Kāẓemzāda, pp. 107-108; cf. Honari, pp. 53, 97, 141-42).


On the eve of Nowruz special kinds of bread are baked, and a meal (usually fish with rice pilaf mixed with herbs) is consumed. Lights from bonfires illuminate many a rural house and village, and candles burn on graves, often accompanied by dishes of sweets, again as offerings to the dead. Meanwhile festive bands go around singing, dancing, and playing music, usually receiving gifts from neighborhood families. The exact moment of the “turning of the year” is announced in advance. In anticipation, families gather around the haft-sin table, many reciting prayers intended to impart good will to all. As soon as the year “turns,” children and in-laws get up and kiss the hands of the father and mother (or other elders if present), and offer their greetings. They themselves are in return kissed on the cheek (males) or forehead (female), and given their gifts (usually new banknote, occasionally gold or silver coins), and then the junior members of the family go through the same procedure with their elder siblings or in-laws. Customary congratulatory exclamations are: “May your Nowruz be happy!” (Nowruz-e [or ʿeyd-e] šomā mobārak [or ḵojasta/farḵonda] bāšad), “May health, victory, and prosperity be with you this year and many (or a thousand) years to come!” And to the elders: “May God save you for us!” (Ḵodā sāya-ye šomā-rā az sar-e mā kam nakonad, lit. ‘May God not diminish your shadow over our head!’).


Replies are normally the same and for the last phrase run something like this: “May you be under the protection of God (often adding: and of Morteżā ʿAli)!” Then some sweets, nuts, and colored eggs are distributed among those present, and water is drunk for bringing health and happiness. The candles are not put out (certainly not by blowing on them) but left to be burned all the way. Immediately afterwards (or in the following morning if the year has turned during late night), kinfolks, household servants, friends, and acquaintances visit each other, go through the same ritual, are welcomed by the offer of rosewater, and partake of sweets and other delicacies. Those families who are in mourning usually visit the graves of the departed and pray, then return home. After that, the elders and notables of the society and the kindred visit them but without observing the customary ceremonies of Nowruz, merely wishing them heath and long life and pray that no loss may befall the family again.


Children specially love Nowruz. They do not need to work, go to school, or be restricted in play; they wear new clothes, receive gifts, and play various games, particularly the “egg-cracking” and tipcat (similar to baseball and played with wooden sticks.


The following days are spent in visiting friends, going on picnics, and, increasingly, traveling to other cities and countries. Particularly favorite sites include Persepolis (I registered 1,330,749 visitors on 21 March 1976), Isfahan, Mašhad, and other historic monuments, as well as holy sanctuaries and shrines or the Caspian or Persian Gulf resorts for the more affluent. The thirteenth day is the “outing day,” and every family gets out, throws the plate of sabza away (while making a wish that with it all mishaps may be averted), finds a spot in a park, garden, or along a stream, spreads a carpet on the ground, and enjoys the day by playing chess, backgammon, cards, alak-dolak, etc, singing, dancing, chatting merrily, and listening to music. Elaborate meals are cooked and large quantities of fruits, nuts, drinks, and sweets consumed. Having thus bidden Nowruz a worthy goodbye, they return joyfully to their living places in the evening.

Nowruz In other Lands


Nowruz has been celebrated with considerable zeal amongst the nations of Iranian background inhabiting other lands, namely, the Tajiks, Afghans, and Kurds of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. In Tajikistan, particularly in the province of Badaḵšān, Nowruz is “the Great Festival” and “the inherited national festival,” symbolizing friendship and renovation of all beings (Sulaqāni, p. 245). Various sweet dishes are prepared, and, in accordance with an old custom, before Nowruz the matriarch of the house places a pair of red brooms in the upright position in front of the house entrance, and hangs a piece of red cloth over the lintel—red being the color of happiness and blessed times. The family’s most important belongings arte gathered outside, all doors and widows left opened, the house meticulously swept, and utensils thoroughly cleaned. Then the matriarch of the house re-enters, carefully replacing the furniture and utensils, and prepares for the arrival of Nowruz. Visitation, greetings, and partaking of the sweets and drinks follow. The guests are entertained with sumptuous meals, particularly the bāj (head and trotters of a sheep cooked with whole wheat), and there then follow outdoor games, among which tāb-bāzi (playing on swings), egg-cracking, and wrestling are common (Sulaqāni, pp. 245-46).

In Afghanistan, Nowruz is the official holiday, and in the Balḵ area it is also called “the Feast of Red Roses” (jašn-e gol-e sorḵ). The rites associated with welcoming the holiday (cleaning houses and buying new clothes, preparing sweet dishes and elaborate meals) and with celebrating it (school holidays, visitation, exchange of gifts, partaking of sweets and fruits) are much the same as in Persia (Sulaqāni, pp. 248-49; Makāri; Nabaʾi; Hamilton, p. 388). Even the preparation of the meal for the departed souls is customary (Honari, p. 61). In Heart, the special meal is rice pilaf and rooster stew. The men who are betrothed, send Nowruzi gifts to their brides, including a rooster, sweet dishes, and a set of clothes. Shortly before the “turning of the year,” men gather in mosques and shrines, and local priests recite prayers and write them on paper using as ink the water mixed with saffron contained in copper tubs; each man drinks a sip of the saffron water (āb-e zaʿfarāni), and some also take a bowl of it home for their family, viewing it as a symbol of blessing and abundance. The haft-sin spread (sofra) is not usual, but the samani (called samanak in Herat) and sizdah bedar are. Outdoor games, particularly wrestling and bozkaši (lit. ‘goat-dragging,’ an equestrian game) follow the usual visitation and indoor entertainment. A particular custom is to raise an ʿalam. In Mazār-e šarif region it is called ʿalam-e mobārak” (attributed to Imam ʿAli) and is raided by the elders and notables on the morning of the first Nowruz day and taken down forty days later. During this period, it is an object of public veneration, and various votives are offered to it and boons are sought from it. The holidays continue for a time, but two days are especially important: the first čahāršanba (Wednesday) and the sizdah. The first Wednesday rivals the usages of sizdah in Persia: people prepare special meals and spend the day outdoor in merrymaking and playing games. The day is especially joyful for women, who gather in gardens and peacefully party, sing, dance, and play, especially in the swing. Watching cock fights and camel fights is also common (Makāri, pp. 221-26).

All Kurds celebrate Nowruz with enthusiasm, even in lands where their traditions do not meet with official sanction. Great quantities of sweets and fruits are consumed, and women ceremoniously cook samani. Everywhere elaborate bonfires are kindled and fireworks (on hill tops and roofs, in streets and the countryside) are accompanied by music, dancing, singing, and picnicking. In some areas the setting up of the “Nowruzian king” is still practiced (Mokri; Minorski, pp. 102-03; Keyvān, pp. 59-140; Bois, p. 477).

Wherever Persian culture has gone Nowruz has gone with it. Moqaddasi witnessed it celebrated in traditional Iranian way in Yemen (pp. 45, 100). In the Fatimid Egypt, Nowruz was observed as a national festival with all its Persian rituals: wearing new clothes, sprinkling water, kindling fire, carnivals, singing and playing music, official public receptions, exchanges of gifts, recitation of congratulatory poems, and distributing alms (al-Ṣayyād, pp. 115-26, citing Qalqašandi, Maqrizi, and Nowayri). A text, allegedly written by Ptolemy and based on the predictions of the Prophet Daniel, was circulated, which described the qualities of Nowruz according to its place in any of the seven days of the week and in relation to planets and the Nile River (Hārun, V, pp. 47-8). It was later adapted by Safavid scholars in describing the qualities of Nowruz based on astrological and calendrical associations. Despite some opposition, Nowruz continued to be celebrated in Egypt albeit somewhat modified, and survives to this day (Lane, 1895, Chap. 26; for contemporary Egyptian Nowruz poems see pp. 127-29). In Spain, Ebrāhim Hoṣri al-Qayrawāni found it useful to give a collection of the congratulatory phrases used at Nowruz (II, pp. 1005-1006). Moslem dynasties of the Indian subcontinent observed the Nowruz rites ardently and fully (Taqawi; Čudahri, pp. 31-37) as did the Ottoman sultans and officials (Carra de Vaux), the amirs of Bukhara (Olufsen, p. 367), and the people of Central Asia and the Caucasus (Inostrantsev, pp. 100ff.; ʿAbd-Allāh Jān;).

In Northern Tāleš (ʿAbdali) and Arrān (now in the Republic of Azerbaijan) Nowruz is a national holiday, and buying of new clothes, cleaning and repainting houses, carnival-style minstrelsy and firework (Čahāršanba suri), and visiting relatives and friends are customary, as are the Nowruz-ḵᵛāni and preparation of the Nowruz table with candles, water, flowers, sweets, fruits, colored eggs, and the samani. The latter is considered the symbol of Nowruz and celebrated in folk poetry, for example “Samani, look after me; I will prepare you every year” (Madadli; ʿAbdali). The four Wednesdays before Nowruz are days of festivities commemorating the four acts of creation, and are called Water Wednesday, Fire Wednesday, Earth Wednesday, and Air or Trees Wednesday (Fuad Aliyev, pers. comm. dated 2 February 2002).

Muslim Indian immigrants took Nowruz to South Africa (Iren) and sailors carried it together with the Persian (Zoroastrian-style) calendar to East Africa and to the coasts of the Indian Ocean (Khareghat). The Swahilis have retained much of the Nowruz (vocalized as Nairuzi) ceremonies but adapted them to their beliefs and local rites: a feast is held one week before Nairuzi, then comes fishing and collecting wood in bundles for five days. On the sixth day, another banquet follows, the Qurʾān is recited, and on the next day people go to the beach, bathe, put on new clothes, sing and dance. After a ceremonial meal all fires are extinguished and later rekindled by the primitive method of fire sticks (for details see Gray; Freeman-Grenville).

In recent years Nowruz has again come in favor in Turkey. On 21-23 March 2000 a symposium was held in Ankara for studying the observance of Nowruz in the Turkic-language regions, and the papers were published in Uluslararasi Nevruz Sempozyumu bildirileri: 21-23 Mart 2000, Ankara (see bibliography). They demonstrate the wide spread of Nowruz celebrations and joyous songs associated with it among the peoples speaking Turkic languages: the Nachchevanis, Turkmens, peoples of Sivas, Afyonkarahisa, northern Caucasus and Central Asia, the Alavid Bektashis of Anatolia, the Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, and the Altay Turks. Also there are useful accounts of the Nowruz-related folklore and plant symbolism in Anatolia, and on practices common to various groups. They contain solid data which demonstrate the wide spread observation of the Nowruz. Most recently, Iranian communities abroad have popularized Nowruz and sizdah bedar far beyond the borders of Persia and the sphere of Persian culture.




NOTE: Abbreviations: Hamāyeš-e Nowruz— Majmuʿa-ye maqālāt-e noḵostin hamāyeš-e Nowruz, Tehran 2000; Nowruz wa čahāšanbe suri—Noḵostin jalasāt-e soḵanrāni wa baḥṯ darbāra-ye Nowruz wa čahāšanba suri wa sizdah-bedar, Tehran 1977


Farāmarz Ḵodādād b. ʿAbd-Allāh al-Kāteb Arrajāni, Samak-e ʿayyār, ed. P. N. Ḵānlari, 5 vols., 5th ed., Tehran, 1968-74.


Mirzā Mehdi-ḵān Astarābādi, Dorra-ye Nādera, ed. ʿAbd-Allāh Anwār, Tehran, 1962, pp. 178, 227, 246, 274, 287-88, 299-300, 363.


Moḥammad Biḡami, Dārāb-nāma, ed. Ḏü. Ṣafā, 2 vols., Tehran, 1960-62.


Cornelius de Bruin, Voyage par la Moscovie, en Perse et aux Indes Orientales, 2 vols., Amsterdam, 1718 , vol. I, p. 191.


Jean Chardin, Voyage de chevalier Chardin en Perse, et autres lieux de l’Orient, ed. L. Langlès, 10 vols., Paris, 1811, vol. II, pp. 249ff., 267, vol. III, p. 452.


Pietro Della Valle, Suite des fameux voyages de Pietro della Valle, gentilhomme Romain, surnommé l’illustre voyageur … , 2 vols., Paris, 1684, vol. I, p. 286, vol. II, pp. 277-78.


Abu Ḥāmed Moḥammad Ḡazāli, Kimiā-ye saʿādat, ed. Ḥ. Ḵadiv-Jam, 2 vols., Tehran, 1982.


Antonino de Gouveia, Relation des grandes guerres et victoires obtenues par le roi de Perse Chah Abbas contre le empereur de Turquie Mohamet et Achmet, sons fils, Rouen, 1646, pp. 447-49.


Abu Esḥāq Ebrāhim b. ʿAli Ḥoṣri, Ketāb zahr al-ādāb wa ṯamar al-albāb, ed. ʿA.-M. Bajawi, 2 vols., Cairo, 1970.


Abu ʿOsmān ʿAmr b. Baḥr Jāḥeẓ, Ketāb al-tāj fi aḵlāq al-moluk, ed. A. Z. Pasha, Cairo, 1914.


Moḥammad b. ʿAbdus al-Jahšiāri, Ketāb al-Wozarāʾ wa al-kottāb, ed. M. Saqqa, E. Ebyari, and ʿA.-Ḥ. Šalabi, Cairo, 1938.


Engelbert Kämpfer, Amoenitatum exoticarum politico-physico-medicarum, bk. 1, ed. and comm. W. Hinz as Am Hofe des persischen Grosskönigs 1684-1685; das erste Buch der Amoenitates exoticae, Leipzig, 1940, p. 262.


Mofażżal b. Saʿd b. Ḥosayn Māfarroḵi, Ketāb maḥāsen al-Eṣfahān, 2 vols., ed. J. Tehrāni, Tehran, 1933; tr. Ḥosayn b. Moḥammad b. ʿAli-Reżā as Tarjoma-ye Maḥāsen-e Eṣfahān, ed. ʿAbbās Eqbāl, Tehran, 1949.


Raphaël du Mans, Estat de la Perse en 1660, ed. Ch. Schefer, Paris, 1890, p. 114 (see also F. Richard).


Taqi-al-Din Aḥmad b. ʿAli al-Maqrizi, Ketab al-ḵeṭaṭ al-maqriziya al-mosammā be Al-Mawāʿeẓ wa al-eʿtebār be ḏekr al-ḵeṭaṭ wa al-āṯār, yaḵtaṣṣo ḏalek be aḵbār eqlim Meṣr wa al-Nil wa ḏekr al-Qāhera wa mā yataʿallaqo be hā wa be eqlime-hā, 4 vols., Cairo 1906-8, vol. II, pp. 241-42, 263-64.


Šehāb-al-Din Moḥammad Nasavi, Sirat-e Jalāl-al-Din Menkiberni, ed. M. Minovi, Tehran, 1965.


Adam Olearius, Relation du voyage d’Adam Olearius en Moscovie, Tartarie et Perse, 2 vols., Paris, 1672, vol. I, p. 399.


Pseudo-Jāḥeẓ, al-Maḥāsen wa al-ażdād, Cairo, 1932.


Pseudo-Ḵayyām, Nowruz-nāma, ed. M. Minovi, Tehran, 1933.


Abu’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAli Qalqašandi, Ṣobḥ al-aʿšā fi ṣenāʿat al-enšāʾ, 14 vols., Cairo, 196, vol. II, pp. 407-13.


F. Richard, ed., Raphaël du Mans: missionnaire en Perse au XVIIe s., 2 vols., Paris, 1995.


Père Sanson, Voyage ou relation de l’état présent du royaume de Perse, Paris, 1695, p. 207.


Abu Bakr al-Ṣuli, Adab al-kottāb, ed. M. B. Aṯari and M. Šokri al-Alusi, Cairo, 1922-23.


Maḥāsen b. ʿAli al-Tanuḵi, Al-Faraj baʿd al-šedda, 2 vols. in 1, Cairo and Baghdad, 1955.


J. B. Tavernier, Les Six Voyages de Jean-Baptiste Tavernier … en Turquie, en Perse, et aux Indes, 2 vols., Paris, 1676-77, vol. II, p. 71, cf. p. 442.




H. R. d’Alemagne, Du Kurdistan au pays des Bachtyaris, 4 vols., Paris, 1911, vol. I, pp. 171-74.


M. Š. Ālusi, Boluḡ al-arab fi maʿrefat aḥwāl al-ʿarab, Baghdad, 1896, repr. 1925.


Jāber ʿAnāṣori, “Peykhā-ye Nowruz dar Ardabil,” Honar o Mardom 53-54, 1967 pp. 27-30.


A. J. Arberry, Shiraz. Persian City of Saints and Poets, Norman, Okla., 1960.


Čerāḡ-ʿAli ʿAẓami-Sangsari, “Jašnhā-ye melli-e Sangsar,” Barrasihā-ye tāriḵi 3/5, November-December 1965, pp. 87-106.


ʿObayd-Allāh Ayyubiān, “Mir-e Nowruzi: yek-i az marāsem-e kohan-e Nowruz dar Kordestān, Majalla-ye Dāneškada-ye adabiyāt-e dānešgāh-e Tabriz, 14, 1962, pp. 99-112.


Idem, “Taqwim-e maḥalli-ye Kordi,” Majalla-ye Dāneškada-ye adabiyāt-e dānešgāh-e Tabriz 16, 1964, pp. 179-208.


Moḥammad-Taqi Bahār, “Tanhā aṯar-i az Irān-e qadim, yā ruz-e Nowruz,” Bahār o adab-e Farsi 2, Tehran 1972, pp. 337-40.


Abu Rayḥān Biruni, Āṯār, ed. with Pers. tr. M. Moḥaqqeq, Tehran, 1973. Thomas Bois, “Kurdish Society,” EI²IV, 1978, pp. 470-79.


ʿAli Bolukbāši, “Nowruz, bozorgtarin jašn-e bāstāni wa melli-e Irān,” Honar o mardom 4-5, March-April 1963, pp. 3-11.


E. G. Browne, A Year Amongst the Persians: Impressions as to the Life, Character, & Thought pf the People of Persia, Received during Twelve Months’ Residence in that Country in the Years 1887-1888, London, 1893, pp. 223, 231, 256.


H. C. Brugsch, Reise der Königlich Preußischen Gesandtschaft nach Persien, 1860 und 1861, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1862-63.Louis Dubeux, La Perse, Paris, 1841, pp. 461-62.


A. E. Christensen, Les types du premier homme et du premier roi dans l’histoire légendaire des Iraniens, pt. II: Jim, Leiden, 1934, pp. 138-60.


J. N. Curzon, Persia and the Persian Question, 2 vols., London and New York, 1892, vol. I, pp. 312, 401, 445; vol. II, pp. 31, 160, 295, 470, 476, 478, 481 Moḥammad-Reżā Darviši, Nowruz-ḵāni (25 tarāna-ye Nowruzi o bahāri), Tehran, 1997.


Waḥid Dastgerdi, “ʿEyd-e Nowruz wa jašn-e bozorg-e firuz-e Jam,” Armaḡān 2/1, March-April, 1921, pp. 1-11.


ʿAli Ḵorvaš Deylemāni, Jasnhā-ye bāstāni-e Irān, Tehran, 1957.


B. A. Donaldson, The Wild Rue. A Study of Muhammadan Magic and Folklore in Iran, 2nd ed., London, 1976.


Abu’l-Qāsem Enjavi, Jašnhā wa ādāb wa moʿtaqadāt-e zemestān, 2 vols., Tehran, 1973-75.


ʿAbbās Eqbāl, “Nowruz-e melli wa ādāb-e qowmi,” Yādgār 1/8, 1945, pp. 1-7.


Naṣr-Allāh Falsafi, Zendegāni-e Šāh ʿAbbās-e Awwal, 2nd ed., 5 vols., Tehran, 1954.


Abu’l-Qāsem Faqihi, “Nowruz dar Fārs,” Faruhar 18, 1983, pp. 920-38.


Idem, “Sofrahā dar Širāz,” Honar o mardom 106, August 1971, pp. 53-54.


W. Francklin, Observations Made on a Tour from Bengal to Persia in the Years 1786-7, London, 1790.


G. S. P. Freeman-Grenville, “Nawruz. 2. In East Africa,” EI ² VII, 1993, pp. 1047-48.


Qāsem Ḡani, “Ādāb wa ʿādāt-e ʿeyd-e nowruz,” Yāddāšthā-ye Doktor Qāsem-e Ḡani, ed. S. Ḡani, vol. 10, London, 1983, pp. 582-92.


W. Geiger, “Nowruz”, Kāva 1/5-6, 1916, pp. 4-5.


J. R. Gray, “Nairuzi or Siku ya Mwaka,” Tanganiyka Notes and Records, 38, 1955, pp. XXX.


A. Hamilton, Afghanistan, London, 1906.


Nāhid Ḥabibi-Āzād, “Ketābnāma-ye Nowruz,” Ketāb-e māh 1/5, February 1999, pp. 26-31.


ʿAbd-al-Salām Ḥārun, ed., Nawāder al-makṭuṭāṭ, vol. V, Cairo, 1954.


Mehdiqoli Moḵber-al-Salṭana Hedāyat, Ḵāṭerāt wa ḵatarāt, Tehran, 1940, pp. 121-23.


Ṣādeq Hedāyat, Nirangestān, Tehran, 1931, repr. 1963, pp. 49-54.


Ṣādeq Homāyuni, “Nowruz wa peyvastegihā-ye ān bā sāyer-e aqwām o melal,” inHamāyeš-e Nowruz, pp. 251-68.


Idem, Molk-e ʿabirāmiz: farhang-e mardom-e Sarvestān, 2nd rev. ed., Tehran, 1992, pp. 405-9.


Idem, “Marāsem-e Čahāršanbe suri, Nowruz, Sizdah dar Širāz wa Sarvestān,”Nowruz wa Čahāšanba suri, pp. 140-55.


Morteżā Honari, Nowruzgān: goftārhā wa sorudahā-i dar āʾinhā-ye nowruzi(Traditions and lyrics of Nowruz), 2nd rev. ed., Tehran, 1998.


K. A. Inostrantsev, “Sasanidskiǐ prazdnik vesny” (Sasanian festival of spring), inSasanidskie ètyudy, St. Petersburg, 1909, pp. 82-109; tr. into Persian by Kāẓem Kāẓemzāda as Taḥqiqāt-i dar bāra-ye Sāsāniān, Tehran, 1973, pp. 89-114 with notes on pp. 176-89.


Iraj Iren, “Rewāyat-i digar az jašn-e Nowruz,” 7/4, Winter 1995, pp. 819-24.


Ḥamid Izadpanāh, “Nowruz dar Lorestān,” Faruhar 18, 1983, pp. 891-96.


A. V. W. Jackson, Persia, Past and Present, New York, 1906, pp. 99-100.


Nāder Karimiān-Sardašti and ʿAli-Reżā ʿAskari-Čāvardi, Ketābšenāsi-e Nawruz(Bibliography of Nawruz), Tehran, 2000.


Moḥsen Fayż Kāšāni, Resāla-ye Nowruz wa si ruz-e māh, in Majmuʿa-yeAnjoman-e Irānšenāsi, ed. M. Moʿin, Tehran, 1946, pp. 73-84.


Ḥoseyn Kāẓemzāda-Irānšahr, “Asās-e Nowruz-e Jamšidi,” Irānšahr 1/10, 1921, pp. 251-73.


Moṣṭafā Keyvān, Nowruz dar Kordestān, Tehran, 1970.


M. P. Khareghat, “The Daryai Noroz,” in Dr. Mod Memorial Volume, Bombay, 1930, pp. 118-30.


E. W. Lane, TheArabian Night’s Entertainments: or, The Thousand and One Nights, 2 vols., New York, 1848.


Idem, Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians, London, 1895.


ʿAyn-Allāh Madadli, “Nowruz dar Āzarbāyjān”, in Nowruz wa Čahāšanba suri, pp. 209-12.


Moḥammad Makāri, “Nowruz dar Herārt,” in Nowruz wa Čahāšanba suri, pp. 219-26.


Iraj Maleki, “Sorudhā-ye Sāsāni wa tarānahā-ye Nowruzi,” Majalla-ye musiqi 3/62-63, Winter 1972.


John Malcolm, The History of Persia from the Most Early Periods to the Present Times, 2 vols., London, 1815, vol. II, pp. 404-5.


H. Massé, Croyances et coutumes persanes suives de contes et chansons populaires, Paris, 1938, pp. 145-62, 508-9.


Moḥammad-Taqi Mir Abu’l-Qāsemi, “Negāh-i be moʿtaqedāt-e mardom-e Gil wa Deylam,” Nowruz wa Čahāršanba suri, pp. 101-09.


Dust-ʿAli Moʿayyer-al-Mamālek, “Nāṣer-al-Din Šāh wa marāsem-e ʿeyd-e eslāmi wa melli,” Sālnāma-ye Donyā 9, 1953, pp. 59-71.


Moḥammad Moʿin, “Ruzšomāri dar Irān-e bāstān,” Majmuʿa-ye Anjoman-e Irānšenāsi 4, Tehran, 1946, pp. 1-85.


Idem, “Jašn-e Nowruz,” in Majmuʿa-ye maqālāt, ed. Mahindoḵt Moʿin, vol. I, Tehran, 1985, pp. 157-79.


ʿAli-Naqi Monzavi, “Nowruz wa siruz: Ḥadiṯ-e Moʿallā b. Kaniṯ,” in Hamayeš-e Nowruz, pp. 33-40.


James Morier, A Journey through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor, to Constantinople, in the Years 1808 and 1809 …, London, 1812, pp. 205-6.


ʿAbd-Allāh Mostowfi, Šarḥ-e zendegāni-e man, 3 vols., Tehran, 1964; tr. N. Mostofi Glenn as The Administrative and Social History of the Qajar Period [The Story of my Life], 3 vols., Costa Mesa, Calif., 1997, vol. I, pp. 200-5.


Abu’l-Fażl Nabaʾi, “Nowruz-e Irāni dar taqwim-e eslāmi,” Majalla-ye Dāneškada-ye adabiyāt-e dānešgāh-e Mašhad 15, 1982, pp. 703-38.


Saʿid Nafisi, “Tāriḵ-e Jašn-e Nowruz,” Payām-e Nowin 1/7, March-April 1959, pp. 1-10; 1/8, April-May 1959, pp. 72-84.


O. Olufsen, The Emir of Bukhara and His Country, Copenhagen, 1911.


J. E. Polak, Persien, das Land und seine Bewohner: ethnographische Schilderungen, 2 vols. in 1, Leipzig, 1865, vol. I, pp. 367-89.


R. K. Porter, Travels in Georgia, Persia, Armenia, Ancient Babylonia, &c. &c. during the years 1817, 1818, 1819, and 1820, 2 vols., London, 1821-22, vol. I, pp. 361ff.


Hušang Purkarim, “Marāsem-e ʿeyd-e Nowruz wa jašnhā-ye bāstāni dar yek-i az dehkadehā-ye Māzandarān,” Honar o Mardom 66, March-April 1968, pp. 19-27.


Mirzā Moḥammad Qazvini, “Mir-e nowruzi,” Yādegār I/3, October 1944, pp. 13-16.


Idem,“Šāhed-i digar barāye mir-e nowruzi,” Yādgār I/10, June 1945, pp. 57-66.


Ḏü. Safā, “Nowruz dar qorun-e eslāmi,”Mehr 2/4, October 1934, pp. 376-81.


Ṣadiq Ṣafizāda, Nowruz dar miyān-e Kordhā, Tehran, 1971.


Javād Borumand Saʿid, “Nowruz wa āʾinhā wa sonnathā-ye melli wa mardomi,” inNowruz-e Jamšid, Tehran, 1998, pp. 253-383 Moḥammad ʿAli Sajjādiya, “Taeš-e ḵoršid bar qārra-ye abrišom,” Barg-e sabz 4/21, March 1995, pp. 6-7 (Nowruz dar Kazakhstan).


Ḡolām-ḥoseyn Saʿidi, Ḵiyāva ya Meškinšahr, Tehran, 1965 (chapter 12 deals with Nowruz and other festivals).


ʿAbd-Allāh Sālāri, Farhang-e mardom-e Kuhpāya, Tehran, 1998, pp. 244-45.


Foʾād ʿAbd-al-Moʿaṭṭi al-Ṣayyād, Al-Nowruz wa aṯaroho fi al-adab al-ʿarabi, Beirut, 1972.


C. Serena, Hommes et choses en Perse (1877-78), Paris, 1883, pp. 231ff.


Saʿid Šādābi, Farhang-e mardom-e Lorestān, Ḵorramābād, 1998, pp. 47-52.


Maḥmud Šafiʿi, “Nowruz dar Čahārmahāl-e Baḵtiāri,” in Nowruz wa Čahāršanba suri, pp. 63-77.


Ḥeydar Šahryār Taqavi, “Jašn-e Nowruz dar Pākestān o Hend,” in Nowruz wa Čahāršanba suri, pp. 10-22.


Ebrāhim Šakurzāda, ʿAqāʾed o rosum-e mardom-e Ḵorāsān, Tehran, 1967, 2nd ed. Tehran, 1985.


Idem, “Eyd-e Nowruz wa ṣebḡehā-ye eslāmi-ye ān,” Našriya-ye dāneškade-ye adabiāt-e Mašhad 15, 1982, pp. 239-56.


A. Sh. Shahbazi, “Mazdaean echoes in Shiʿite Iran,” A Zoroastrian Tapestry, Bombay, 2002, pp. 247-57, esp. pp. 255-56.


B. Spuler,“Die Zuverlessigkeit der sassanidischen Datierungen,” Byzantinischen Zeitschrift 44, 1951, pp. 546-50.


Qorbān-ʿAli Sulaqāni, “Nowruz dar Iran o sarzaminhā-ye digar,” Hamāyeš-e Nowruz, pp. 241-49.


S. H. Taqizāda, Gāhšomāri dar Irān-e qadim, Tehran, 1937; 2nd ed. with new annotations, ed. I. Afšār, Tehran, 1978.


A. S. Triton, “Sketches of life under the Caliphs, III,” The Muslim World 62, 1972, pp. 137-47.


Uluslararasi Nevruz Sempozyumu bıldırılerī: 21-23 Mart 2000, Ankara(Proceedings of the International Nowruz Symposium held at Ankara 21st-23rd March, 2000), Ankara, 2000 (Nouruz celebrations among Turkic peoples).


Carra de Vaux, “Notice sur un calendrier turc,” in A Volume of OrientalStudies Presented to Edward G. Browne, M.A., M.B., F.B.A., F.R.C.P., Sir Thomas Adam’s Professor of Arabic in the University of Cambridge, on his 60th Birthday (7 Febr. 1922), ed. T. W. Arnold, R. A. Nicholson, and E. G. Browne, Cambridge, 1922, pp. 106-16.


Sayyed Aḥmad Wakiliān, “Panja-ye pitok, yādgār-i az jašnhā-ye Nowruz,” Hamāyeš-e Nowruz, pp. 269-78.


S. G. Wilson, Persian Life and Customs, 2nd ed., Edinburgh and London, 1896, pp. 236-38, 243-52.


Ehsan Yarshater, “Now Ruz: The New Year Celebrations in Persia,” Iran Review 4, March 1959, pp. 12-15.

Next >

Tajikam on Facebook



Tajik Leaders


Tajikam in Persian


Which synonymous term do you use the most?

Our Partners

Tajik Media
buy generic diamox with bonus buy tenormin online no prescription united states yasmin usa no prescription mexico clomid is there a drug comparative to beconase aq fast olanzapine delivery accutane serious side effects boots pharmacy opening hours tunbridge wells prednisolone dosage for children with croup suprax for sale online alli diet pills next day delivery all types rumalaya pills what is femcare pills used for zyvox without used drug where purchase retin-a 0,05 us pharmacy online alphagan pharmacy generic amoxil online elocon ointment buy canadian medicine scholarships donde puedo comprar hytrin side effects altace weight gain viagra purchase in india buy generic mestinon online caverta for sale australia buy diflucan generic how much will olanzapine cost safe zyvox no prescription trandate tablets side effects what is metoclopramide is there a generic brand for singulair is it illegal to order pills online allopurinol prescription congestive patients where to purim online pharmacy uk prometrium actos over the counter generic pioglitazone lowest priced mircette order biaxin online with visa buy over the counter azulfidine online tegretol reviews bipolar disorder levitra mg usa buy flomax 0.4 mg can you sell viagra on ebay mentat delivery uk aciclovir drugs online purchases artane dublin map best site to buy augmentin best site get ranitidine raquel allegra sample sale body choice hoodia weight loss reviews cardura ordering no prescription where to buy amaryllis belladonna canadian flagyl for dogs pets buy lasuna generic need trimix prescription where do i lipitor in mexico para que sirve el medicamento provera de 10 mg buy cialis soft uk buy phexin hong kong tamoxifen on line purchase discount canadian pharmacy online cefixime without prescription miami there generic omnicef celexa weight loss cause online pharmacy buy mentax amoxicillin trihydrate ca 500mg uses black and gold leopard print air max 1 zyprexa medicine uses ordering terramycin here in canada reglan online legally do you need a prescription for zyban dapoxetine from usa pharmacy aygestin over counter uk flonase uses medication how to get proscar drug kytril australia sarafem online cheap online antabuse purchase cheap toradol usa zyprexa medicine can you order tadapox buy brand cialis 10 hydrea drug class can you order beconase aq beclomethasone nasal where to buy nimotop ointment what is amlodipine taken for janssen cilag italy combivent generic brand lotensin ships from india buy paxil cr no prescription zebeta medication side effects best online mexican pharmacies ordering low dose zanaflex buy serophene singapore snovitra super power drugs online purchases sarafem looking for nexium otc dosage can i take nexium 40mg twice a day purchase flagyl mg benadryl medication class deltasone drug oversea how long does it take for differin and doxycycline to work ephedraxin order online order albendazole pills canadian levitra plus what is the correct dosage of ceftin serevent reviews for men what dosages does januvia come in where to buy unisom sleeptabs pharmacy didronel online pay paypal meclizine buy on line cialis super active pills using accutane for a second time Purchase aciphex 10 mg zovirax to buy in the usa without a prescription order citalopram online canada use diclofenac coupon online what is the price of levaquin 500 mg combivent from uk best generic isoptin sites levlen drugs for sale when will legal generic viagra be available kamagra soft limited india levitra plus alcohol avalide on the internet drugs online india online pharmacy canada reviews valtrex without prescription miami online pharmacy uk olanzapine hytrin tablets uk accutane for sale philippines noroxin metronidazole disulfiram reaction mechanism low cost neurontin order mobic 120 mg where to buy diamox delivery order aciphex overnight cheap tulasi free delivery artane prescription coupon buy cheap nolvadex order aciphex on line usa can you buy levothroid over the counter betnovate refill pack what types of sustiva are there what types of propranolol are there missed estrace dose awam ki adalat latest purchase claravis online genuine buy acticin university of new mexico pharmacy residency generic name lozol brahmi gadi katha movie online dvd print buy alesse in singapore levitra professional online uk can you get zanaflex buy cheap levitra sustiva overnight pharmacy pilex now co uk to buy trazodone mail order medications heat side effects of seroxat 20mg generic actoplus met 15 950 can order doxycycline canada prometrium comprare xenical usage instructions where can i buy children dramamine buy lotensin 50 cheap generic cialis mastercard minipress side effects long term use alli online overnight is alli diet pills available in canada brand advair diskus pills drugstore comprar ethionamide en argentina order phenergan with codeine syrup nexium drug side effects accutane acne medication cycle how to get digoxin in australia voltaren dosage for 50 mg nexium oral solution lady era online forum seroquel xr 300mg tablets accutane body acne pictures order reglan lowest price buy generic valtrex online drugs online generic fucidin buy mevacor greece triamterene discount best drugstore makeup brand 2012 canada buy tretinoin without prescription cheap bactrim pills buy mentax greece buy fucidin in india online best viagra medicine in india ordering cymbalta india online pharmacy european union cheap finast sale uk prospecto diclofenaco cinfa 50 mg benzac clean costo lincocin cialis 10 mg is it illegal to order generic micronase buy generic prescription drugs online can i buy brand cialis in canada nolvadex no prescription needed canadian online pharmacy reducing zoloft dosage comprar shuddha guggulu portugal what drug category is lariam actos drug replacement advair steroid side effects zerit to buy from europe frozen acai berries sale uroxatral price fast coreg delivery cheap pariet buy online nitroglycerin medication used indocin sr discontinued buy atorvastatin india prednisone purchase without prescription generic minocin 100 mg kamagra oral jelly pharmacy cheapest effexor xr online codeine and promethazine cough medicine thyroxine levels too high side effects of vpxl list of tesco stores selling seroflo baclofen 100mg cheep donde comprar dutasteride en espaa medication for travel anxiety in dogs buy lidocaine uk diclofenac tabletten 25 mg rezeptfrei sildenafil andros unilab buy permethrin 5 percent can buy metformin online femara cares program prescription discount card herbal medicine used for abortion how long to take plavix after stroke amitriptyline online canadian where is sky pharmacy located zoloft insomnia withdrawal viagra purchase online safe diclofenac sodium side effects alcohol lipothin to buy in the canada without a prescription precio xenical roche mexico buy flomax inhaler canada fluconazole dosage for children cost of cialis at cvs pharmacy us pharmacy online kamagra oral jelly z pack pregnancy drug category can you get promethazine for bronchitis no script erythromycin mg singulair pills ingredients do you need a prescription for differin can buy parlodel online lithium price increase keflex tablets purchase on line mestinon shopping can i order keppra no prescription in the usa pcod panel test canada order brand amoxil buy alphagan 1 canadian health care insurance get liv 52 las vegas accutane canadian source generic cialis in toronto altace without a prescription protonix pas cher italie actoplus met generico online generic zyvox paypal generic drug zestoretic cvs pharmacy near metro center generic viagra india cheap torsemide prix en pharmacie en france cheap pilex 40 mg generic alli medication lamictal canada pharmacy generic cialis jelly us glycomet online cheap i pill kamagra website cystone prescription only what does vytorin do buy abilify 1mg online exelon side effects weight loss cicloferon single dose cipro for gonorrhea can you get a decadron shot while pregnant what does ranitidine buy alli refill 160 Purchase ventolin 2mg buy dramamine in australia most reliable place to buy diflucan online singulair over the couter discount code for depakote is generic duphalac effective mestinon online pharmacy what does paroxetine 40 mg look like herpes tablets online is seroquel a schedule 2 drug what is hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg tab fast lithium delivery online valtrex purchase can you buy alli over the counter in germany what does arjuna do what are the side effects of taking water pills plendil for sale online buy qsymia diet pill online singulair sales 2011 decline without a script depakote online drugs that interfere with synthroid f ree viagra for sale pill rx health tadacip products veterinary pharmacy in tijuana ventolin no rx brand cialis tablets for sale genuine ralista best price pariet fast mexico where to buy starlix drugs online non inflammatory arthritis is generic motrin available in usa get proscar prescription order non generic celexa inderal 20 mg acivir pills overnight lithium er 300 mg tablet generic acticin usa pharmacy xanax europe no prescription clonidine patch reviews zerit shoppers drug mart canadian pharmacy meds safe craigslist new york city apartments for rent como comprar cytotec en mexico genuine cialis soft best price are alligators dangerous to kayakers hark a vagrant amazon uk order estrace cream online canadian pharmacy the online drugstore synthroid buy zestoretic 50 order ranitidine rx order glucophage xr viagra free samples generic cialis soft 20mg does zoloft cause weight gain or weight loss buy periactin quick wellbutrin dose rxlist cheap pills buy bentyl online diflucan generic price yagara on line purchase where to amaryl innopran xl tablets side effects overnight delivery buy doxycycline lowest mircette combination pill buy atacand with no script long lasting sex pills uk glucophage pills cheap allegra d allergy buy mifepristone pill online can we trust benadryl online matrix red pill blue pill song anxiety medication celexa where is metformin absorbed lamictal next day delivery actos delivery uk erection packs 1 pills elocom cream uk buy acticin from canada lopid shortage buy seroflo from canada xenical shortage 2012 buy finpecia online without prescription how to use kamagra chewable where to buy tinidazole drugs online purchase zebeta pills what is medrol for pms-amlodipine 5mg side effects risk factors for chloroquine retinopathy cialis 20 mg price canada voltaren side effects uk aciclovir shingles silagra 50 price lov cost kamagra soft olmesartan medoxomil solubility tamsulosin side effects what is co ranitidine 150 mg tadalafil ieren bitkiler nelerdir nedir buy midamor tablets online depakote without rx buy toprol xl without rx buy rumalaya gel online reviews metformin buy online us xenical pharmacies prescription purchase allegra in usa plendil where to purchase tesco pharmacy malarone cheap stieva-a tretinoin cream usp 0.025 ampicillin tablets online accutane in usa banned why did xbox live price increase casodex side effects fatigue walmart pharmacy refill order cytoxan online price where to buy clomid online no prescription tadapox side effects long term use lioresal on line purchase cymbalta buy mexico actos dosage side effects caverta 25 for women overseas drugs overnight zithromax delivery buying elimite from canada no prescription suhagra generic uk aspirin brand or generic xenical generico melhor preo vente de cefixime au quebec buy cheap valium online uk lotrisone canadian source buy paxil online overnight where can i buy stromectol in the uk lynoral buy online ireland ordering finpecia uk order doxycycline tablets brafix canada overnight delivery med cab terramycin order hyzaar without prescription baclofen side effects in elderly zenegra spain over counter order grifulvin online no presctiption safe buy cardizem online venlor on line no script isoptin 240 mg sr cialis super active uk how to import prograf buyers of hydrea canada fucidin cream during pregnancy januvia best prices compare prices nootropil florinef dogs isoptin online overnight car insurance where do i revatio in usa betapace dosage recommended cipro fast delivery predisone without script from canada cheap altace india ampicillin drug study for children fosamax buy ortho tri-cyclen mexican pharmacies viagra official seller cheapest cities to live in california where to buy reglan purchase compazine can you buy xalatan over the counter in germany buspar prices usa best sites buy viagra online best place buy vpxl difference between proscar non prescription lotensin pharmacy levitra tablets from buy paroxetine and alcohol use brand name mestinon online overnight pharmacy floxin keppra with american express what drug category is capoten cytoxan costco zyrtec rx dose premarin horses urine buy effexor xr 40 side effects of nitrofurantoin 100mg 10 day weather lanzarote can you get meclizine order floxin medication by mail brand name lariam online generic acai usa pharmacy no prescription doxycycline hyclate achat de viagra au buy cheap viagra professional buy online ayurslim generic purchasing trial erection packs 3 online viagra mansion miami alli pharmacy prices list fungsi obat flagyl forte 500mg buy over the counter eurax online Purchase abilify 6 canadian pharmacy free lexapro coupons propranolol maximum dosage can you get blood clots while on coumadin himcolin medication order cafergot us mebendazole side effects constipation half price tadapox ceftin dosage for cats where to buy elocon with echeck normal asacol dose calcium carbonate where to get buy levitra online 7 current canadian allies sale cafergot can we trust minomycin online buy noroxin from mexico online buy viagra super active from india lamictal noprescrition needed canada online pharmacy retin-a 0,05 side effects uk where can i get zantac pills losec dosage order alphagan buy atorlip-20 no prescription albendazole through treatment oral youtube one man one jar of nutella indian generics online diclofenac erythromycin over counter levlen contraceptive pill ingredients pulmicort perth australia lopressor order buy metronidazole 500 mg purchase medicines online india cymbalta generic cost hyaluronic acid injection prices what does plendil what is apo-citalopram 20 mg stromectol generic wikipedia drugs side effects of tamsulosin hcl dosis de antifludes jarabe is snovitra super power a prescription drug what does phenergan mean ortho tri-cyclen cheap prometrium progesterone tablets antivert overnight shipping cheap buy valtrex in australia panax red ginseng reviews how to buy v-gel in london accutane before and after back pictures buy valacyclovir cheap cost of synthroid without insurance 2013 efectos secundarios del disgrasil powergra pills generic minocycline extended release best price for diclofenac diltiazem ointment dose what is claritin d used for buy tricor mexican pharmacies nolvadex price south africa forum buy generic alavert online chloroquine tablets what is hyaluronic acid drugs chloroquine overseas can order parlodel canada likelihood twins 50mg clomid generic adalat 45 arthritis medication relafen periactin legal in england neurontin for dogs buy dostinex tabletas amlodipine mechanism of action viagra uk free delivery side effects of long term use of motrin price increase unisom erythromycin drug oversea pil perancang keluarga yasmin buy torsemide online no prescription us xeloda 40 mg dose generic taladafil paypal danazol pills drugstore try viagra ships 2 to 3 days u.s generic female viagra uk paypal metformin woldwide shipping where can i watch antiviral online donde comprar exelon where to buy frozen acai in london buy online zenegra generic vasodilan online pharmacy uk can buy mycelex-g online genuine ampicillin best price us online pharmacy no prescription diflucan online pharmacy uk adalat pill rx health metformin products lisinopril manufacturers usa reglan in usa benicar no prescription reviews cytotec pill shop discount code cipro expiration shelf life max safe dose levitra exelon common stock elavil birth control online india cheap lexapro canada sominex coupons buy testosterone cream online canada what do allegra pills look like valacyclovir generic cost what is the antibiotic flagyl used to treat baclofen pump nuclear medicine dostinex without prescription canada clomid for daily use canada mentax online drugstore side effects of tegretol cr 200 mg is there a generic for wellbutrin to buy eurax lisinopril 20mg no prescription long term side effects of nizagara using cialis and viagra at the same time zithromax generic release date where can i get some celexa rocaltrol maximum dose online generic sinequan synthroid no prescription medication acidophilus dosage for bv prednisone 20 mg tablet side effects buy serevent hong kong prescription zyprexa over counter uk augmentin duo side effects children capoten india generic anafranil medication online buy cheap clomid online no prescription 100mg accutane reviews alphagan in croatia where to buy anafranil online usa order alesse online in usa amaryl medication pictures suppliers of tretinoin 0,05 in us actonel no prescription serevent billig kaufen augmentin prices when to take the alli diet pill cheapest viagra uk online albendazole 400 mg pills generic crestor alternatives silagra delivery london side effects of septilin buy cheap actos using pay pal speman reviews amlodipine besylate 5mg tab side effects what is benadryl good for can i get a prescription for zyrtec substitute for viagra uk phenergan online chemist vpxl shortage cheap generic ranitidine canada drugs actonel with prescription how much does lipitor cost in the uk prilosec chewable tablets combivent pill shop discount code where naprosyn retin-a 0,025 pharmacy order when is the best time to take my thyroid medication exelon 40 mg pharmacy indian generics online minomycin generic brands of wellbutrin xl what is benzaclin gel used for where can i buy benzaclin what doses does atarax come in interactions diclofenac tablets india buy pariet capsules can i get prevacid over the counter diflucan without prescription miami stats hell factor analysis where can i buy unisom how to get cialis super active on line alli orlistat 60mg weight loss aid lipitor withpout presp skelaxin discounts generic atrovent cost crestor for sale usa celexa warning above 40 mg buy aspirin mg how long does it take actonel to work furosemide 40 mg tablet side effects nexium price ireland most reliable place to buy kamagra oral jelly online dilantin and diet pills acheter acai paris ciprobay 500 dosage cheap suprax india buying requip for dogs generic from phenamax comprar trazodone pela internet side effects of ampicillin iv buy ampicillin uk save cheapest best price for real zestril cafergot 10 mg effexor xr generic cost pharmacy online pharmacy store bangalore baclofen medicine side effects cost of seroquel 300 mg vasotec tablets for sale evista order best sex pills for women cialis professional 20mg tab lipothin how to buy kamagra gold shopping cafergot canada generic zetia paypal online cialis jelly india zovirax ointment for sale buy cardizem australia minipress lawsuit canadian pilex tablet zovirax cream genital herpes safe tenormin no prescription venta de viagra en concepcion chile promethazine shopping aaron s club juniors now patient reviews on cymbalta zyprexa available india eldepryl online in us snovitra super power pills drugstore can you buy proventil albuterol buy sarafem from canada levitra plus sale canadian doxycycline alcohol malaria overseas pharmacy no prescription haldol what kind of medication is atacand why has minipress been discontinued online finast india ocular side effects of prednisone lady era shop net lariam shop net vasodilan without a prescription where can i buy protonix tablets side effects of wellbutrin sr and alcohol purchase zyprexa cheap sildenafil citrate buy cheap what are all types of drugs how to get free asthma inhalers where can i buy evista online without a prescription lisinipril without a prescription how much does reglan cost without insurance metronidazole uses hydrochlorothiazide pas cher how to use acai berry diet pills safe place order avalide buy exelon from canada the chepest levaquin why is ibuprofen better than aspirin etodolac 600 mg er tablets onde comprar viagra em portugal doxycycline 100 mg once a day red ginseng tablets benefits elavil tablets uk wellbutrin cost with insurance cialis generico brasil comprar tadalafil spedizione da europa buy fda approved cialis zithromax birth control online canada hydrochlorothiazide for sale canada buy blopress boots pharmacy buy online lexapro generic januvia side effects in women buspar cost without insurance viagra vipps sites buy online diakof generic emsam without a prescription erythromycin acne dose cleocin t over counter generic name for augmentin drug lipitor suppositories buy citalopram 10mg goes you buy diflucan prescription fucidin ointment side effects what is septilin tablets retin-a 0,05 delivery lozol comprare requip generic brand toradol express canada cheapest zyprexa buy over the counter nitroglycerin online avodart no script non prescription crestor pharmacy can buy bactrim online chloroquine lawsuit settlements glyset online uk best generic avalide sites bactroban cream uses acne buy hydrea singapore purchase erythromycin on line in mexico cipla ltd mumbai central mumbai 400 008 india anything better than flomax buy mentax online cheap toprol xl how to buy buy online estrace generic canadian pharmacy without rx order blue viagra frim usa to uk micardis plus 80 12.5mg generico is mentat ds syrup a prescription drug brand viagra price india cheap menosan cheap sildenafil canada where to buy frumil without a prescription order lukol online motilium tablets 10mg domperidone is it illegal to order generic cialis sublingual xalatan drops storage acticin order canada ic baclofen 10 mg astelin by mail tricor shares registrar buy abilify 10 mg aripiprazole where to get coumadin bracelet buy tetracycline online with filmer online vampire diaries generic pills for torsemide doxycycline side effects skin order menosan cheap low cost overnight nymphomax list of tesco stores selling kamagra gold diclofenac online kopen maxalt from usa artane billig kaufen can you take calcium carbonate daily pregnancy rates after clomid what does panax ginseng do to the body doxycycline 100mg tablets dosage viagra pfizer kaufen preis dilantin 100mg side effects bupropion on line genuine nitrofurantoin best price can men take metronidazole 500mg tablets free viagra without prescription depo medrol comprar aldactone capsules levitra plus tablets uses cheap aciphex selling pharmacy glucotrol xl in croatia generic form of zyrtec d how long does it take 36 hour cialis to work cheapest brand viagra to buy viagra pfizer wikipedia cafergot dosage interactions generic birth control pills for yasmin buy viagra jelly online no prescription united states elocon canada overnight delivery can you buy zestoretic albenza golf club bars xanax wiki +order your drugs from canada!!!!! legal buy inderal online canada nitroglycerin sublingual tablets expiration tamoxifen without script cheap online buy order clomid cheap lamisil 250mg seroflo maximum dosage indinavir cheap uk buy dapoxetine online tetracycline usa medicine buy cholestoplex online to buy pulmicort cvs online pharmacy imitrex tablets prescribing information order exelon patches online advair diskus prescription coupon ventolin interactions other drugs snovitra super power how to buy side effects of cialis 5 mg etodolac medication order why is there a shortage of vermox norvasc sales 2009 blood order furosemide pill exelon patch over counter nizoral shampoo bulk buy finasteride other medications ventolin us companies only us online pharmacy no prescription gyne-lotrimin what medicines interfere with depo provera arimidex online usa what is atrovent hfa inhaler erythromycin generics list of birth control brand pills pyridium drug class purchase gyne-lotrimin cheap cheapest zetia online buy risperdal 50 what all does paxil treat dostinex generic cabergoline www.periactin tablets viagra ireland herbal buy accutane online is there an over the counter protonix where eurax release of generic lipitor fluoxetine usa pharmacy buy noroxin usa how much valtrex to take during an outbreak deltasone drugs com to buy aristocort voltaren dosage 75 mg online buy enalapril no prescription nizoral cream levitra super active canada overnight delivery generic from wellbutrin sr xenical comprar risperdal overnight shipping cheap buy nitroglycerin no prescription tricor medication biaxin 10 mg cost order generic sumycin impetigo treatment fucidin h generic bupropion in usa methotrexate online meds dose de ataque nootropil generic feldene for sale on line buy astelin 20 ovulation on clomid 3-7 cabergoline effects men buy rhinocort hong kong discount mcg how long to use chloramphenicol eye drops can u buy zovirax over the counter how much zyrtec can i take to get high doxycycline over counter thailand malegra fxt without rx motilium pas cher medicine ciprofloxacin hydrochloride canadian medications cheap crestor in italia types of viagra for men trimox for sale what is cleocin ovules used to treat online pharmacy side effects of long term use of depo provera calan echeck fincar purchase in canada no prescription why was pyridium discontinued no prescription inderal sale desyrel medicine children flonase missed dose brand cialis without a prescription from us buy ortho tri cyclen lo no prescription crestor vs lipitor medication combivent inhaler betapace medication order order cystone canada tadalafil generico in farmacia order effexor xr 75 mg capsules seroxat side effects alcohol buy sarafem with e check generic levaquin levofloxacin 250 mg where purchase roxithromycin cheapest viagra super active combivent canada pharmacy buy brand ciplox advair diskus tablets price how to take bactrim forte overnight pharmacy brand viagra plavix drugs in the age of personalized medicine harvard business review generic zofran not as effective jake gyllenhaal viagra salesman cheapest place to buy nymphomax where to get hoodia pct dapoxetine and viagra together what are prednisone pills used for sustiva order in the us how much is trileptal without insurance elocon cream 0.1 information vigra airport departures order tenormin online in usa where can i get celebrex from buy bactrim with visa want buy abortion pills online does toradol get you high reviews on alli diet pills generic uk paypal aciphex ashwagandha in croatia wellbutrin sr vs xl cialis free trial coupon ethionamide paypal viagra without prescriptions legal levitra cost walgreens buy atarax tablets india cymbalta shipped overnight is cephalexin a prescription drug nizoral for daily use canada buy avapro online australia acai tablets - triple strength (1500mg) reviews cheap avalide india generic purinethol in usa lotensin pills sweat como solucionar la disfuncion erectil psicologica generic plan b order orlistat tablets lyme disease single dose doxycycline lopressor price sale atacand cod long time side effects combivent no prescription buy generic accutane online where to buy ortho tri cyclen online mexico buy cardura 15mg online what is amitriptyline used for side effects buy lamictal quick what is the difference between trazodone and trazodone hydrochloride order coreg without prescription brand biaxin for sale evista fast usa plavix drug in germany pharmacy is synthroid over the counter drug toradol generic ketorolac sertraline hcl 25 mg homeopathic medicine for upper back pain how to buy synthroid online farmacia online portugal cialis celadrin delivery uk cleocin generic reviews purchase levitra brand discount casodex mg singulair online usa no prescription voltaren medication dosage canadian pharmacy dog medications buy methotrexate online with mastercard cialis testimonials forum sale dapoxetine buy finax 50 flagyl for cats with giardia tenormin 100 mg side effects purchase ditropan on line in india new mexico health insurance alliance alavert roche precio argentina cheap tetracycline usa ortho cyclen generic previfem buy mestinon online cheap buy alli diet pill singulair pediatric asthma where could i buy requip without prescription differin price au purchase chloromycetin cheap what drug category is brafix ranitidine tablets ip 150 mg buy himplasia tablets online buy cheap alligator shoes croc viagra trial coupons difference between lithium carbonate tablets and capsules promethazine over counter uk cialis professional generic 2013 drugs xeloda comprare ultra low dose cardura how long does chloramphenicol take to work canadian discount ceftin online better than dulcolax cheap allinclusive holidays for 2011 pariet prices cvs canada drugs nizoral with prescription hyzaar generic form rx estrace cream 5 mg of prednisone side effects advair dosage and administration danazol ordering online pharmacy online pharmacy uk strattera will walmart sell generic lipitor buy generic retin-a ge online clonidine drug class buy lotensin 80 mg online is there a levaquin generic buy advair diskus online cheap metformin for men sale in uk how long do i have to take champix clomiphene dosage 100 mg where can i buy viagra online yahoo answers want to buy lipitor best place to buy evista in india myambutol for men sale in uk nitroglycerin shelf life spc azithromycin suspension can you get high on neurontin safe place order lipitor what are the most characteristic side effects of colchicine content by conran aspen sofa brand viagra to buy in the canada without a prescription cipla eas approval system acheter pas cher colospa buy lipitor 10mg generic crestor 40 mg coupon does taking celebrex make you gain weight purchase bupropion xl side effects of trazodone hydrochloride buy viagra pay mastercard betapace daily use reviews canadian online pharmacy for olanzapine albuterol inhaler dosage guide casodex tablets from buy female cialis price india buy retin-a ge with paypal cytotec and medical abortion is generic propecia available in the us viagra price india purchase lamisil 250mg voltaren 50 mg e.c where can i get eldepryl pills safe place order pilex canada online pharmacy cost of saw palmetto to buy plendil olanzapine women buy bystolic tablets blood pressure medicine how to get bentyl in australia nizagara on line for sale no script canadian pharmacy home yasmin brands india can you get viagra on nhs prescription buy micardis hong kong paxil drugs forum shatavari online uk can you get high off tegretol calan on line no script what mg does diflucan come in online pharmacy uk alesse zovirax pills online in the mexico toprol xl medicine clonidine wanted online review lipitor competitors can you buy online cheap generic zebeta yasmin without a script ephedraxin over the counter colchicine by on line what is celebrex medication for purchase cafergot on line in australia buy antabuse by paypal furosemide conversion from iv to po what is hyaluronic acid pills used for remeron without insurance can you get zestoretic over the counter costco pharmacy tulasi price motrin dose child safe combivent no precription where to buy alligator gar meat clinic breast cancer drugs femara clomid australia online no prescription cheap tinidazole usa quiero comprar viagra contrareembolso is there a generic form of entocort metronidazole flagyl 500 skelaxin for sale viagra over counter canada how can i buy viagra in uk pariet overnight delivery buy albendazole online india no prescription super active lowest price cardura terramycin where can i buy generic bystolic paypal cialis generico non funziona suprax cefixime tablets usp prescription drug trazodone used insomnia will benicar available generic form zyloprim side effects viagra buy online review atacand pharmacy prices list cleocin ovules for bv diflucan where to purchase cordarone order on web lotrisone reviews acne where can i get motrin cialis australia online shopping bupron sr professional no prescription pharmacy levitra online missed two doses of lexapro flagyl er order shatavari sale donde venden viagra sin receta en chile cheap us aceon online overnight what is women viagra generic cialis pills online synthroid pills effects levitra vs cialis drugs where to buy retin a micro gel how much is zyban without insurance doxycycline 100mg tablet mpc tenormin barato tamoxifen drug classification lov cost shuddha guggulu prevacid from takeda purchase cheap generic allegra us pharmacy online apcalis sx viagra en suisse hoodia tablets online can u buy abortion pills online is generic cipro effective yagara price precose generico italiano lov cost famvir indocin overnight shipping cheap where do i buy ventolin acivir pills pas cher colchicine in usa can i make avandamet cheap diltiazem india where can i buy yasmin in london triple energy ginseng costco what is allegra drug best drugstore makeup 2012 buy brand ceftin diclofenaco sodico 50 mg dosis nios precio de redustat 2011 canada drug pharmacy code buy propranolol from mexico online zofran generic costco buy ampicillin without a subscription most common side effects of medrol dose pack where to get calan pct venta de viagra en santiago chile generic atorvastatin cost uk plendil uk online acyclovir pregnancy safety amaryl no rx lexapro dose reduction feldene flas comprar snorting trazodone pills can you get pregnant after taking prometrium ginseng online usa lithium on line india generic propecia finasteride 5mg morning after pill nhs where can you buy acai berries in london norvasc tablets manufacturer side effects of quinine water didronel from usa buy amitriptyline hydrochloride mail-order suhagra short and long term side effects of prednisone diclofenac stada 100 mg zpfchen amitriptyline medication overnight delivery albuterol sulfate inhalation solution 0.083 espanol buy actonel capsules yasmin 40mg adderall uk pharmacy order tamoxifen online with visa lexapro for ocd forum abilify sales by indication cost of generic valtrex without insurance thuoc vgr 100 serophene results forum is mail order viagra super active safe fastest antabuse uk delivery calcium carbonate order by phone birth control pills prednisone med cab luvox blood pressure medicine tenormin glucotrol xl ordering no prescription buy lotrisone online pharmacy what is the recommended dosage for levitra antivert 10 mg cost no script trazodone mg cheap actos 45 mg pioglitazone cost of trileptal without insurance purchase does speman work cheap prescription order xeloda 120 mg difference between aripiprazole abilify purchasing celadrin online uk cheap canadian erection packs 1 no prescription prilosec 10 mg side effects buy cialis soft tabs uk generic for cymbalta medication buy tamoxifen canada 20mg levitra plus medicine cheapest drugs coversyl arginine uk version of femara buy voveran with no rx keflex by mail order translational medicine alliance forum 2010 my twitter stats best generic tadapox review buspar medication class malegra fxt pill canadian red viagra 200mg generic lisinopril in usa furosemide drugs for sale lipitor canada recall order purim overnight what is the difference between synthroid and generic can you buy generic singulair tegretol express canada best place buy clonidine best price for real zocor acai tablets uk children;s benadryl australia generic propecia finasteride comprar crestor original anafranil dose for adults buy generic retin a no prescription imuran without prescription generic purim cost buy minomycin online no prescription us side effects of depo provera weight gain natural testosterone therapy for men malegra dxt order in the us recommended dose of augmentin for uti cipla medpro jobs maxalt brand positioning tinidazole tablets from buy generic venlor overnite shipping prandin and grapefruit juice buy generic female cialis online what is provera tablets used for estradiol test menopause online pharmacy metoclopramide zofran pct buy propecia 5mg dosage buy genuine digoxin uk flagyl metronidazole for dogs luvox 100 mg tablet genericmedication can buy dilantin online rogaine 2 delivery london purchase imuran cheap google image search extension genuine cipro big discount online can trazodone 50 mg get you high what types of prilosec are there noroxin shoppers drug mart buy rumalaya forte no prescription fast delivery can diclofenac be bought over the counter bottle u buy viagra over the counter in canada can you order brand advair diskus drugs fluticasone singulair tablets purchase on line himcolin online in usa buy over the counter zantac online cleocin gel without a prescription what is prednisone used for in adults buy ditropan for daily use low testosterone therapy dosage canada drugs cialis with prescription risperdal canada no prescription generic singulair not working as well side effects of tetracycline antibiotics cordarone medication side effects cost veterinary prednisone roxithromycin online from usa is there a shortage of bactrim nizagara mg buy dispersible aspirin tablets bp 75 mg post cycle therapy minipress buy keftab online at canada pharmacy best place to buy endep information on flomax medication what is bupropion sr 150 mg used for lloyds pharmacy online dr chloroquine generico italiano minipress buy on line plendil online bestellen generic from digoxin what does digoxin pill look like lopressor by mail divya ashwagandha churna for weight gain fast protonix deleviery i pill sinequan website how hard is it to get off pain pills how long to get pregnant on metformin indian pharmacy lithium gasex without a prescription does acai berry tablets work weight loss india zyban price side effects of avapro hct medication motilium discount medications healthy mango pineapple smoothie recipe buy cialis in canada online doctor consultation prescription pain medication what does cytotec do order topamax without prescription diclofenac uk brand name naproxen alcohol dangerous american trimox lotensin pill shop discount code buy rogaine 2 uk orlistat prescription weight loss buy ciprofloxacin 500mg orally what is the drug zoloft used for phone in order for aristocort mircette trusted online drug stores in canada can you buy inderal propranolol prescription viagra soft order on web healthy pregnancy after accutane where can i buy antabuse tricor on line for sale no script medrol visa ordering augmentin here in canada vytorin dosage too high clonidine medication anxiety where can you get acai berry buy over the counter cystone online otc inhaler cvs himplasia online usa no prescription hong kong buy entocort online erythromycin stearate side effects purchase abilify 4 mg strattera australia pharmacy buy augmentin us pariet over the counter drugs viagra commercial song buy abana boots pharmacy ephedraxin online usa comprar zocor original pharmacy mexico meclizine list of tesco stores selling requip erectile dysfunction drugs cost comparison what does nizoral shampoo do generic viagra cheap india lasix buy without antibiotics and the pill yasmin doxycycline without prescription is there a drug comparative to skelaxin what is motrin ib best place to buy shuddha guggulu buy glucophage sr online clomid babies success stories please pregnancy nitroglycerin canada head office viagra generic germany lisinopril zestril 10 mg brafix billig kaufen over the counter citalopram genesis acai 100 review cheap digital camera lithium battery online pharmacies america lexapro cheaper cordarone in the uk now prednisolone coupons protonix ivpb kytril online bestellen comprar risperdal original list of tesco stores selling aciphex gonorrhea treatment iv ceftriaxone buy voltaren 20 cheap generic keftab 20 mg singulair dosage generic form for avodart what drug category is eulexin ciprofloxacin eye drops for infants lowest priced trental femcare lawsuit canada kamagra for purchase acivir pills spain over counter nexium online meds where can i purchase effexor xr buy digoxin mexico lasix prescription overnight delivery how much does xenical cost in south africa synthroid 75 mcg cost comprare propecia senza ricetta furosemide in canada anacin pain medicine viagra in indian medical store azithromycin z pack azithromycin 250mg purinethol coupons acivir pills costco artane pharmacy side effects sport enhancement drugs minipress cost comparison cialis comprar online brasil pet insurance what is astelin tablets does uroxatral cause weight gain buy fluoxetine without a script amoxil capsules and alcohol buy ketoconazole shampoo chlamydia nhs campaign best price skelaxin what does the medicine cephalexin do generic zanaflex uk paypal prazosin barato verdade que a sertralina emagrece buy viagra in the united states flomax commercial video side effects of zyrtec-d 12 hour cheap generic phexin anacin canada head office arimidex mg tablet buy arimidex next day where to buy cheap generic tretinoin 0,025 cialis jelly for daily use canada lipitor generic for ordering glucotrol xl generic lamisil from china aldactone roche precio argentina best rated canadian online pharmacy buy cheap amitriptyline antidepressants how does aripiprazole abilify work india toradol price chances of having twins on 100mg of clomid comprar roacutan 20 mg buy glucophage generic purchase yasmin in usa keppra vs. generic levetiracetam dostinex mg buy actos pharmacy assistance buy atorlip 10 no prescription mirapex er rxlist side effects of parlodel tablets quiero comprar olanzapine how to get finax in australia cheap zyprexa medicine moduretic bula anvisa best price for xenical apply to walgreens pharmacy online dose doxycycline lyme disease horses voltaren 25 mg dosering finpecia medicine tablets can i buy viagra over the counter in usa cheapest billig retin-a 0,025 online kaufen bupropion for men sale in uk purchase precose cheap can i buy kamagra in australia to buy cipro in uk price xenical south africa side effects of naproxen 250mg avandamet shoppers drug mart viagra vs. cialis vs. levitra which is best online benicar india cefixime syrup dose in children what does bactrim ds mean ciprofloxacin hcl 500mg tab side effects viagra cheap price us pharmacy metformin hcl 850 mg weight loss best price alphagan nasal atrovent dose sony xperia s tablet is there a generic drug for zofran antibiotic ceftin side effects toprol xl online meds medrol dose pack dosage pediatric generic allegra walmart can you buy female cialis over the counter walmart pharmacy bactrim order actos 60mg canada power bull 100 sildenafil yasmin birth control online pharmacy mirapex generic reviews elimite cheap uk cheap arjuna buy online ranbaxy caverta alli medication cost revia mexico apo-minocycline 100mg reviews lamictal pills side effects what is depakote classified as tramadol online no prescription cod without a script adalat cod erexin-v in croatia list of licensed canadian pharmacies cr123a lithium battery shelf life prevacid drugs cheapest place to buy robaxin side effects of alli weight loss tablets buy generic chloramphenicol with bonus meri adalat south indian film prednisone tablets 10 mg picture generic retin-a 0,025 switzerland fluconazole 200 mg tab baclofen dosage for alcoholism pravachol rx atorlip-5 usa sale buy zoloft online from mexico order aciclovir 2 400mg abana overnight prescription cod cialis jelly for sale philippines diclofenac uk boots styplon prices at costco legal buy atrovent online canada comprar levitra super active original sildenafil aurochem 50mg praziquantel side effects entocort australia price lipothin medicine online buy orlistat online from australia discount meclizine of canada colchicine prices generic what is terbutaline sulphate used for what is the cost of lipitor 10 mg can i get clomid online where can i buy diflucan at how to order shallaki online buy hyzaar in singapore cardura buy on line brand pilex buy high blood pressure medication list discount canadian pharmacy glucotrol xl trandate tablet sale novo-olanzapine 10 mg side effects of promethazine codeine syrup metformin buy canada allopurinol generic 2013 drugs donde comprar ginseng coreano en bogota furosemide online usa online buy kamagra 100mg zyrtec usa sale low cost acticin 30g effexor xr dosage dutas for sale australia arimidex cost costco russian pharmacy usa online zoloft by mail viagra online that takes paypal buy ampicillin lowest reliable online pharmacy anacin usa prednisone 20 mg 5 days order allegra d online decongestant oral ringworm medication for dogs can you buy order altace is generic xeloda available in usa where tofranil eurax overnight shipping cheap can you buy over the counter boots brand viagra goodrx app android kamagra online bestellen ohne rezept how to get lexapro in australia carafate available over counter what is the difference between 50mg and 100mg of clomid order brand levitra lowest price clomiphene citrate challenge trandate generic 2013 drugs buy diclofenac 100mg withdrawal from zoloft forum can you take cialis and levitra at the same time medicine called bentyl overnight delivery generic propecia online digoxin prices cvs health benefits of american ginseng cordarone order online doxazosin from india amoxil mg tablet ketoconazole 2 shampoo usage online generic topamax brand name duphalac online stromectol over the couter prix propecia pharmacie paris tinidazole lowest price purchase zestril online no prescription can we trust glyset online keppra xr discount coupon doctors prescribe viagra online retino-a cream 0,025 online cheap nitrofurantoin in pregnancy uti best drugstore mascara 2012 yahoo creighton university online pharmacy degree voltaren pills used phenamax price tramadol dosage therapeutic dose of neurontin for neuropathy 24 hour canadian pharmacy hyzaar noprescrition needed canada online pharmacy remeron weight loss buy lukol pills online watch punar vivah desi tashan retin a cream 0.025 used for wrinkles synthroid weight loss side effects us online pharmacy no prescription dilantin discount code for alliance tickets mexican elavil casodex online bestellen best generic antabuse review what is reglan medication alesse no prescription canada cheapest viagra melbourne what is finasteride used for do you need rx altace accutane treatment period dapoxetine italiano buy pain medication online without rx best pharmacy to order finast promethazine 5mg tablets where can i get levitra plus how to get hyaluronic acid in australia antivert 40mg cardizem dose iv ranitidine dosage by weight para que sirve el vytorin 10 40 mg where to buy aciclovir online india buy cheap pain pills viagra effects female sexuality effexor xr online what are the side effects of apo minocycline serpina uk buy viagra super active pill canadian celebrex 100mg what is it for lipothin low dose birth control buy dostinex without a script cheapest place to buy ditropan risperdal ordering no prescription can you buy fertomid online pictures of lamictal tablets what is azithromycin used for drugs fda methotrexate shortage order gyne-lotrimin cheap canadian healthcare association modern management lipitor on line in the uk can i buy tetracycline over the counter order cost of lipitor at walgreens forzest sale canadian 20mg sominex mg buy non persciption benzac aricept dosage too high cialis 5 mg tablet roxithromycin use in pregnancy lasix medication without a prescription hydromorphone side effects elderly what types of differin are there property to buy in woolton liverpool levaquin tablets from buy sildenafil uk online diovan ships from india buy pamelor perth australia steal trazodone online what is betnovate 1/5 cream used for viagra online with out prescription can you buy feldene in ireland buy levitra online uk generic anacin buy kamagra tablets india generic user reviews on paxil cheap adalat pills canada drugs vytorin with prescription evista commercial video what is viagra sublingual used for costco pharmacy vantin price buy snovitra super power no prescription fast delivery purchase nizagara in usa what drug category is reminyl wellbutrin xl 300 mg tablet hyde park kroger pharmacy cincinnati safe buy hydrochlorothiazide online wellbutrin sr 150 cost ditropan side effects uk pharmacy technician online training comprar anacin pela internet cloridrato de sertralina 50 mg-medley no prescription micardis buy tetracycline low cheap price can zyban cause weight gain colchicine pill canadian capoten shelf life acai online buy cialis jelly usa side effects of ampicillin for dogs elocon side effects psoriasis requip prix en pharmacie en france why has compazine been discontinued i pill penegra website augmentin pills sweat liquid viagra drink blue tenormin medicine children can you buy rocaltrol best online pharmacy accutane canadian pharmacy ginette-35 zantac prices buy yasmin online pharmacy cheap prevacid no prescription finast in the uk now can you buy elocon over the counter bristol-myers squibb pharmaceuticals limited buy skelaxin 200 best online pharmacy generic paxil what is the difference between clarinex and claritin buy mifepristone misoprostol pills online voltaren cream coupons canada worldwide pharmacy online reviews seroquel xr price per pill half price cefixime motilium generic release date blopress prescription only prazosin medication where to buy friv 10000 games valtrex online prescription tamoxifen citrate australia buy nolvadex serophene echeck augmentin drug store online lipvas 20 mg where to buy flying mounts alliance amiloride hctz dose zantac tablets for dogs best place buy seroflo methocarbamol high dose brand name voveran online low price retino-a cream 0,05 uk artane where can i buy it acivir eye ointment side effects low online acticin without buy celexa with visa wellbutrin sr results forum korean red ginseng pills betamethasone drops 0.1 kroger pharmacy coupon transfer 2013 overseas pharmacy no prescription blopress generic finast uk paypal renagel for sale philippines furosemide tablets 20mg side effects wisconsin list of canadian pharmacies mentat usa sale accutane online purchase side effects of duphalac in children how long does it take for aldactone to work for hirsutism is generic abana effective stieva a cream 0.05 25g chloramphenicol with prescription synthroid and levothyroxine the same thing retin-a 0,05 doctors online apo metronidazole wikipedia voveran sr australia long time side effects phenamax buying valtrex online safe ordering cleocin lipitor dosage cheapest place to buy venlor donde comprar lanoxin viagra side effects for men